Ancient Words In Ethel Stewart’s ‘Last King Of The Hsi-Hsia Empire’

Ancient Words In Ethel Stewart’s ‘Last King Of The Hsi-Hsia Empire’

by, John J White, III

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal



The “Last King of the Hsi-Hsia Empire” by Ethel Stewart (previous article) discusses several aspects of Tibetan Buddhism in order to explain the Dene version of this history. There is little unity in this current piece. It is simply a chance to point out that Medieval Asian history retained many names that were ancient and EMSL-like. The near universal occurrence of EMSL names came to an end in Asia with the development of modern Chinese culture that has a new name for most peoples and locations.

My current view of Tibetan Buddhism is that it emerged ca 500 BCE as an attempt to add new ideas to a combination of Hinduism + Sun/Light religion. We can find remnants of this new religion in Native American culture, but it is often quite dilute and modified by genuine American ideas. The principal mechanism for such change was the requirement to give up many remnants of Neolithic/Copper Age culture in favor of the Paleolithic/Neolithic culture adopted for American survival. And we surely understand that this older culture was the Earth Mother Culture (EMC) that we have investigated thoroughly.

Miss Stewart discussed the memory of the Dene people of Asian warfare and culture in MEJ 17(1) where the records of Father Petitot were converted into a play. The tale begins with an introduction to the Kutchin god Inkfwin Wetay, ie, He-Who-Sits-At-The-Zenith. Their planetary model sounds like the dreaming Buddha of Tibetan Buddhism. Further information occurred in her discussion of a major festival event celebrated in the far north by the Hare and Kutchin peoples. The Rat or Mouse (Mushika) is the vahana of the Elephant God Gana Pati (Ganesha), and Ethel correctly explains how the Naiman became associated with Rat Kings and Rat Clans via the absorption of Hindu Gods into the Buddhist pantheon. Scholars forget that most Central Asians have brown skin from the Indianization of Asia during the Neolithic Era. I suspect the Rat/Mouse and Elephant Gods reached Central Asia long before the arrival of Buddhism.

Buddha like Patrick is a title. The former means The-Father and the latter means The-Father-King or Bishop (Head-Father). The Tibetan Buddhists called the Buddha by the Hindu name VISHNU. This is a classic ancient name meaning VI-GENU or Father-Father. He was originally the Earth God and thus bears the title “the wise”. The Kutchin Dene call their Buddha-type god INKFWIN-WETAY, which I write as INK-FIN(E)-WETE, or Father, Fathers, The Father. The frequent use in Central Asia of the IN-God name shows that the culture of Sumerian/Indus Valley likely penetrated in the 3rd millennium BCE. FW-type consonants occur in Welsh Notice that these Buddhists called Earth Mother DUR-GA. This is the divine destroyer goddess of the Hindus, wife of Siva, and mother of Ganesh (same as Kali).

Ethel mentions the ancient ‘3rd-day-event’, which reminds us of Christianity. Remember that this is Moon-cycle talk that refers to a New Moon. Similarly the ‘grand-father’ term was used in Native America by the Colonial Era Leni Lenape. It was probably adopted from the ‘Yellow People’ that brought them their new Sun/Light religion (ca 1400CE) while they resided in the Midwest.

The author of ‘Last King’ made an important identification by associating Naryweri with the Hindu Narayana name for Vishnu. NARA means male in Hindu and Father in EMSL. The YANA is a puzzle but likely came from GANA/-HANA/YANA or possibly reflects the AN of ANU. The Hindus use the name Nara-Narayana, making the interpretation Father, Father quite reasonable. The Dene use the suffix WERI, which is likely another Father with an RI-noun ending.

The great battle with the Mongols was fought near HALACHAR, which was likely KALA-KA in earlier times. The Supernal Sun, The Sun Bird, of Central Asia, is a reference to GARUDA, the man-eagle vahana of Vishnu and enemy of NAGAS. Notice the TOBA kings emerged from the WEI dynasty. Both words refer to father. A Tuman (TU-MANA) is regiment of Mongolians having 10,000 mounted men. It means The-father. The Naiman tribal name should be interpreted as KNAI-MAN(A) meaning father, father. The town of IN-HIA is similar to New World IN-CA where IN means father. And finally we can see that HSI-HSIA was GE-GEA, typical of earlier ASIA=AGEA names.


1. EG Stewart, “The Death of the Last King of Hsi Hsia in Dene Tradition”, Midwestern Epigraphic Journal 18/19, 87-91 (2004-5).

2. EG Stewart. “U-Ta-Choc-Kieou, The Sailor: Father Petitot in the Tents of the Kutchin”, Midwestern Epigraphic Journal 17(1), 71-73 (2003).

3. EG Stewart, “Funeral Procession Around the Tents: Festival of the Vernal Equinox”, Midwestern Epigraphic Journal 15 67-72 (2001).


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