Archive for September 29, 2015

Admixture in Pima Includes Greek and Sardinian: Genetic Signature of the Minoans, Sea Peoples and Other Mediterranean Peoples in the Southwest?


The Pima Indians and their southern cousins the Papago have been studied intensely by ethnologists and others. They are often represented as definitive specimens of the “Amerind” ethnic type. Genetic surveys feature them front and center. Their creation story has been codified in the book titled The Short, Swift Time of Gods on Earth:  The Hohokam Chronicles, by Donald Bahr, Juan Smith, William Smith Allison and Julian Hayden, a text widely used in university anthropology courses. During the conquest of the American Southwest, the Pima were regarded as strong, friendly and intelligent, as model candidates for assimilation, highly useful as soldiers, guides and intermediaries with the surrounding tribes. Their ancestors, known as the Hohokam, are believed to be responsible for the first indigenous civilization to develop in the region about 400 C.E., marked by city life, canal systems, sophisticated agriculture and long-distance trade.
This blog post from DNA Consultants ( explores the fine-scale genetic similarities between the Pima, Maya and other populations in terms of admixture and suggests that the Pima may have preserved the signature of Old World colonists, especially the Sea Peoples, Semitic visitors like the Phoenicians, and Greeks and Libyans. It is excerpted from a work-in-progress by Robert C. Hyde and Donald N. Yates, The Tucson Artifacts: A Paleographical and Photographic Edition of the Roman Jewish Medieval Latin Inscriptions in the Arizona Historical Society Collection.
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Africans, Maps & Charts

By, Harry Bourne


Did They?

In a series of papers, it has been my intention to attempt to demonstrate that our ancestors were rather more in maritime contact across the world than is generally accepted, especially in academic circles. These papers tend to concentrate on the African aspects of this and they include both sides of the continent of Africa at both Before Common Era (BCE) and Common Era (CE).

Those titled East Africa & the Sea in Antiquity plus Egypt & the Sea in Antiquity clearly indicate east Africa both north and south of the Horn of Africa and that on Egypt touches on the Egyptian coast facing the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. The articles dealing with the Atlantic-facing or western parts of Africa are West Africa & the Sea in Antiquity; West Africa & the Atlantic in Antiquity plus Abubakri II: Who He? The titles of the first two of last three mentioned are self-explanatory but the last-named is less so but deals with later Africans on the Atlantic.

The school of thinking generally labelled Africa-centred/Afrocentric has prompted considerable opposition that is equally called anti-Afrocentric. Concerning Egypt, the charge against has been very forcefully led by the American writer named Mary Lefkowitz in the co-edited “Black Athena Revisited” (1996) plus her own “Not out of Africa” (1997) and numerous essays.

Against the application of Afrocentricism to seafaring Africans on the Atlantic probably the strongest challenge has come initially come from Bernard de Montellano; Gabriel Haslip-Viera and Warren Barbour (Ethnohistory 1997; Current Anthropology 1997, etc.). This was in such as “They were NOT Here Before Columbus: Afrocentricity in the 1990s” plus “Robbing Native Cultures: Van Sertima’s Afrocentricism & the Olmecs”

The “Did They” of the title refers to whether Africans ever had such as maps. This might be expected more of east Africa both south or below the Horn of Africa and east Africa north of the Horn. This may be because both Below-Horn plus Above-Horn east Africa were better known to the outside world, came under the influence from certain parts of that outside world and/or both these features among any number of other ones.

As to west Africans having sailed on the Atlantic Ocean in Pre-Columbian times, what we will describe as the Ethnohistory trio plus many others have flatly dismissed any such notion. Another possibility of explaining the similarities of west African traits and some in the Caribbean plus Mexico and Mesoamerica are what are called drift voyages. This especially means those on what have been described as marine conveyor-belts or sometimes as conveyor-belt currents.

This basically means vessels caught up by currents bearing them across the Atlantic Ocean whether the crews wanted this to happen or not. In such a circumstance, did crews ever need a chart or map of any kind? This is not helped by the general non-belief in and dismissal of possible ancient scripts in west Africa.

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Egypt and the Sea in Antiquity


By Harry Bourne



A long history lies behind attributing the sources of Pre-Dynastic Egypt of Before Common Era (= BCE [= as opposed to CE/AD]) to beyond what Egypt called the Wdj-wr (= Great Green = [all?] seas adjacent to Egypt?). A candidate is the Far East. This mainly means what goes under the several labels of Island Southeast Asia (= ISEA), Maritime Southeast Asia, Insular Southeast Asia, Nusantara (=Islands), Austronesia, the better known “Indonesia”, Indo/Malaysia etc. The principal island-groups are the Philippines, Island Malaysia plus Indonesia.

These islands have a lengthy maritime history that mainly relates to speakers of what are called the Austronesian languages. They are a major ancestral strand of the Polynesians of the west Pacific, some of the earliest migrants to Australia, of the present-day Indo/Malays, the Malagasy of Madagascar, etc. James Hornell (Indonesian Culture in East Africa [Man 1928]) ties this to the Tyvans (= Islanders) seen as Pre-Tamils in south India by Tamil tradition. Robert Dick-Read (The Phantom Voyagers 2005) seeks ISEA influences even further west across the Indian Ocean.

Further is that many online writers have it the Tamil origin-myth has it that Hinduism originates in the parts of Mainland and Island Southeast Asia. Elsewhere online, it is stated ISEA is in the middle of the temple-building cultures outside Europe. The earliest structures may reflect the form of local mountains but arguments for Proto-Hinduism spreading to India plus Egypt may reinforce the general argument. In this light would lions in the role of protecting religious sites on the Indonesian sites in Sumatra and Bali and as the Great Sphinx at Giza (Egypt).

Also ISEA as the Ta-Neter/Punt that the ancient Egyptians to be both the homeland of their gods plus ancestors. Here too would belong that the islands of ISEA on the basis of the Egyptian story of “The Shipwrecked Sailor” placing the land of Punt on an island.

On the other hand, contributors to “Tribute to Hinduism” (= TTH online) hark to India for the origin of Pre-Dynastic Egypt. More specifically, this has prompted looking to western parts “Greater” India (= Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka & Bangladesh) as the ancient Meluhha. This approximates with what archaeologists describe as the Harappan or Indus Culture.

What for such earlier Greeks as Herodotus (ca. 450 Before Common Era [= BCE]) was the Erythrean Sea is now called the Persian Gulf (= Arabian Gulf on Arab maps). At its head is what has been called Sumeria, south Mesopotamia, south Babylonia, Iraq Arabi, South Iraq, etc, and at its southern was what was called Magan ( now mainly Oman?). Geoffrey Possuel (The Indus Civilisation 2002) showed plentiful Harappan pottery at Ras al-Junayz (Oman). Other scholars have described Harappan seals in Sumeria, Dilmun/Tilmun (= modern Bahrain), Magan/Oman. Possuel (Expedition article online) cites texts noting Harappan villages with granaries in Meluhha, the personal seal of a translator of Meluhhan texts, the Indus Valley source of the carnelian beads of Queen Puabi’s necklace found at Ur (all found in Sumeria).

Even the Semitic neighbours appear to have come under this Harappan influence. Thus contributors to TTH already noted state the Asuras led to the name of the Assyrians, Cholas became Chaldeans, Panis became Puni/Poeni (= Phoenicians), etc. There are also Tamil words in Hebrew, thus Tamil tokei as Heb. tukhi (= parrot or peacock); Tamil ibhi as Heb. habbim (= ivory); Tamil kopi as Heb. koph (= apes); Tamil almug as Heb. almuggim (= sandalwood?), etc.

Indians among ancestral groups from which the emerged the Malagasy of Madagascar may be a surprise for both Madagascar plus east Arica from South Africa/Mozambique in the south  to Egypt in the north (see also the sources cited in Ancient India, West Africa & the Sea). Lions protecting of holy places in India are shown in the Wikipedia entry on Asian lions and was seen above in Egypt. This is but one of the many traits held to be shared by India and Egypt according to TTH. Another would be the Hindu shikara compared with the Stepped Pyramids of Egypt.

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Red Man’s Origin: The Legendary Story of His Rise and Fall, His Victories and Defeats and the Prophecy of His Future

In the world of Native Americans, oral communication takes the place of the written word in preserving their most valued “texts.” By a miracle of transmission, here is the earliest and most complete version of the story of the Cherokee people, from their origins in a land across the great waters to the coming of the white man. In olden times, it was recited at every Great Moon or Cherokee New Year festival so it could be learned by young people and the tribal lore perpetuated. It was set down in English in an Indian Territory newspaper by Cornsilk (the pen-name of William Eubanks) from the Cherokee language recitation of George Sahkiyah (Soggy) Sanders, a fellow Keetoowah Society priest, in 1892. We do not have anything anterior or more authentic than Eubanks and Sanders’ “Red Man’s Origin. Mystic and plain-spoken at the same time, “Red Man’s Origin” tells how the clans became seven in number, reorganized their religion in America and struggled to maintain their “half-sphere temple of light.” You will hear in Cornsilk’s original words about the true name of the Cherokee people, the totem Uktena serpent, divining crystals of the Urim and Thummin, “terrible Sa-ho-ni clan” and other Cherokee storytelling subjects. The brief narrative is here reprinted with an introduction, notes and line drawings from Native American history by Cherokee author Donald Panther-Yates.

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