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Ancient Words In Ethel Stewart’s ‘Last King Of The Hsi-Hsia Empire’

ethel

by, John J White, III Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal   The “Last King of the Hsi-Hsia Empire” by Ethel Stewart (previous article) discusses several aspects of Tibetan Buddhism in order to explain the Dene version of this history. There is little

Photograph Of The Famous Kettle Hill ‘Mummy’ – The Beginning of the Robert Goslin Legacy

beverlymoseley

by, Beverley H Moseley, Jr. and John J White, III Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal   It is possible to argue that Robert Martin Gosling (1904-1964) was the greatest field archaeologist and naturalist in Ohio History. This self-educated genius from an enlightened

Bird Ogam In Ancient America

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By, John J White, III and Beverley H Moseley, Jr. Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal   Our interests include many aspects of ancient culture and cultural diffusion. We are inclined to report on specific artifacts found in books and museums that are

Bourne Stone Gives Evidence Of Early Atlantic Crossing

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by, John J White, III, Beverley H. Moseley, Jr., and Charles F. Herberger Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal   [Editor’s Note: The visit of Dr. Charles Herberger to the 2001 MES Symposium prompted us to prepare an update of an old epigraphic

European Maps, Chinese Sources

ChineseOrigin

By Chao C. Chien   Originally published at Diogenes Research There is no longer doubt that the Age of Discovery was not brought on by European explorers. But then, if they did not “discover” the world, who did? Of course, as many overly eager revisionist

The Propagation of a Myth

CCChien

By Chao C. Chien   Originally published by Diogenes Research.org   In a recent BBC News posting a famous medieval map was once more marveled at. This is the famous 1507 “Map of America” by the German cartographer Waldseemuller (See http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-30840318). The 1507 Waldseemuller World

Ancient Fortresses of the Ohio Valley, Part V: Processed Goods, Packaging and Transportation

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Ancient Fortresses of the Ohio Valley, Part V: Processed Goods, Packaging and Transportation By Rick Osmon Originally published in Ancient American Magazine Issue # 105 When we think of ancient trade by ancient merchants, we usually think in terms of durable goods, that is, things

The Lost Gods and Tablet of Prehistoric Michigan

mertz

By, Henriette Mertz     Originally published in Ancient American Magazine. Reprinted with permission from The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal, Beverley Moseley   The Newberry tablet no longer exists. Found on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, it represented only one of thousands of inscribed artifacts

Calalus 775-900 A.D. : A Re-examination of the Bent Artifacts – PART 2

TusconLeadCrosses.DiscoverySite

By, Cyclone Covey. Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Volume 16   The Latin Texts told–in halting Classical clauses but in more characteristically Medieval handling–of a “kingdom” of Jews who traced their antecedents back to the mighty King Benjamin who had been brought to

Were Prehistoric Copper Oxhide Ingots manufactured on the Mississippi coast near the mouth of the Mississippi River?

jay

By, Jay S.Wakefield, jswakefield@comcast.net   Copper: According to American Indian oral tradition, Michigan copper was mined in antiquity by “red haired white-skinned ‘marine men’ who came from across the sea”. Tens of thousands of pits, up to 30’ deep, were mined using fire-setting and stone

Black Olmecs Likely Were West Africans

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By John J. White, III Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Journal Volume 16   Reporting and interest in ancient history is rather ethnocentric. The shortage of authors with Black African heritage leads to an understatement of Black African participation in Cultural Diffusion to the

West Africans Traded in the Caribbean Basin Before Columbus According to Van Sertima

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By, John J White, III Originally Published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Newsletter Volume 25   Ivan Van Sertima and Barry Fell made major impacts on the ancient history establishment in 1976 when they published their famous books. The MES joined forces with Barry Fell

Ancient Lime Kiln found at Newport, RI

Gunnar

I have identified the so-called “foundation structure” of the Newport Grant House as a lime kiln on the basis of two vents in the north and south sections that nobody else has seemed to notice. It was the opinion of historian James Isham (1895) that

Poverty Point, The Manufacturing of Copper Oxhides for the Atlantic Copper Trade

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Bronze Age Town & Gulf Ports on the Copper Trail Open-fire manufacturing of Copper Oxhides (NE Louisiana, & Mississippi c.2000-700 BC)   J.S. Wakefield, jayswakefield@yahoo.com   Photos coming soon, apologies from AA staff.   Summary The “Late Archaic” Poverty Point earthworks in Louisiana are the

Where Did The 4,000 Lenape Go?

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By, Myron Paine, Ph. D., Author Frozen Trail to Merica, Talerman and Walking to Merica. The Lenape walked over a frozen ocean to a land, where nothing was growing. Then God delivered geese and whales. This action was an experience similar to God delivering manna in a desert.   The

Lenape History Suppression

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By, Myron Paine, Ph. D., Author Frozen Trail to Merica, Talerman and Walking to Merica. The Evidence indicates that The People of America spoke the SHORE (OLD NORSE) language, from Hudson Bay to the Isthmus of Panama, when the Europeans Invaded.  The NORSE CATHOLIC HISTORY is still being SUPPRESSED!  In AD 1346

Composition Analysis of Michigan Copper

Michigan Copper in the Mediterranean, The Shipping of Michigan Copper across the Atlantic in the Bronze Age   (Isle Royale and Keweenaw Peninsula, c. 2400BC-1200 BC) J.S. Wakefield, jayswakefield@yahoo.com   Photos coming soon for the article. Apologies from the AA staff.   Summary Recent scientific

Review of Book by Sorenson and Johannessen: a Death Knell for Isolationism

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by, John J White III Originally published in MES. The book World Trade and Biological Exchanges Before 1492 by John L. Sorenson and Carl L. Johanessen is now available. Collectively it represents a slam dunk victory for the historical interpretation of cultural diffusionism over the

Children of Ammon

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By, Carl Bjork http://home.comcast.net/~carlbjork/   Morning –  Were the people who carved the rocks in southwest Nevada the Children of Ammon or the Moab people?  Here is something to play with, no doubt way out on this line of thought.  But it is worth the

Calalus 775-900 A.D. : A Re-examination of the Bent Artifacts – PART 1

TusconLeadCrosses.Ceremonial

by Cyclone Covey, Professor of Ancient History, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (Editor’s Note: This paper #15 was presented at the first Westville Symposium in 1973 held at the outdoor tabernacle of the Westville Antebellum Living Museum located three miles southeast of Lumpkin, Georgia, a

Welcome to Ancient America!

IMG_1086[1]This web site is dedicated to investigating mysteries of history and archaeology, some that arose long before Christopher Columbus sailed west, some that are more recent. A few are current. There are articles by both amateurs and professionals, seasoned researchers and beginners, great writers, and people who simply have something to say. All of them get a voice here. (See contributors’ guide)

You may notice a close similarity to the name of a popular archaeology magazine, Ancient American. We are not that magazine, but we cooperate with it frequently. In fact, many of the writers you encounter here are also contributors to the Ancient American Magazine.

We also report / reprint from interest groups when the discussion brings important points to the table.

Both recent and rare books, other publications, videos, maps, artifacts and reproductions will come up for sale in our eShop.

But, mostly, we provide YOU a place to express your interests and opinions.

Ancient Words In Ethel Stewart’s ‘Last King Of The Hsi-Hsia Empire’

ethel

by, John J White, III

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal

 

ethelstewart

The “Last King of the Hsi-Hsia Empire” by Ethel Stewart (previous article) discusses several aspects of Tibetan Buddhism in order to explain the Dene version of this history. There is little unity in this current piece. It is simply a chance to point out that Medieval Asian history retained many names that were ancient and EMSL-like. The near universal occurrence of EMSL names came to an end in Asia with the development of modern Chinese culture that has a new name for most peoples and locations.

My current view of Tibetan Buddhism is that it emerged ca 500 BCE as an attempt to add new ideas to a combination of Hinduism + Sun/Light religion. We can find remnants of this new religion in Native American culture, but it is often quite dilute and modified by genuine American ideas. The principal mechanism for such change was the requirement to give up many remnants of Neolithic/Copper Age culture in favor of the Paleolithic/Neolithic culture adopted for American survival. And we surely understand that this older culture was the Earth Mother Culture (EMC) that we have investigated thoroughly.

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Photograph Of The Famous Kettle Hill ‘Mummy’ – The Beginning of the Robert Goslin Legacy

beverlymoseley

by, Beverley H Moseley, Jr. and John J White, III

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal

 

It is possible to argue that Robert Martin Gosling (1904-1964) was the greatest field archaeologist and naturalist in Ohio History. This self-educated genius from an enlightened Lancaster, Ohio family (father and four brothers) was a career field researcher who persevered through all manner of depression-related economic obstacles to compile a record of accomplishments hailed by prominent national scientists. Goslin’s career story will be told more fully in a future issue of the Midwestern Epigraphic Journal (Vol 14).

Typical of the life of this obscure Assistant Curator of the Ohio Historical Society is the fact that he married a woman from LaFollette, TN. This result is testimony to the fact that Goslin was a principal excavator for the famous physicist/anthropologist Dr Charles S Webb of the University of Kentucky, who supervised many of the salvage archaeological digs funded to offset the eventual permanent flooding effects of the massive TVA dam and flood control projects.

In the course of our research on the accomplishments of Robert Goslin, we rediscovered the famous photograph from 1927 shown below. The Goslin brothers were active Boy Scouts and explorers in the Lancaster area. Based principally on experience and archaeological curiosity, they elected to dig in the area of a cave shelter at a place 1.5 miles south of Lancaster called Kettle Hill Cave. Their findings made them famous.

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Bird Ogam In Ancient America

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By, John J White, III and Beverley H Moseley, Jr.

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal

 

Our interests include many aspects of ancient culture and cultural diffusion. We are inclined to report on specific artifacts found in books and museums that are relevant to our investigations. Waiting for some organized package of data to arise is quite impractical. While surveying books of interest at the State Library of Ohio in Columbus, we identified two cases of bird petroglyphs that may be rebuses for Ogam inscriptions. Examples of each are shown in Figures 1 and 2, respectively, and we make no claim that these artifacts have not been republished by others with the same idea in mind. We have not seen Burrows Cave artifacts with this particular rock art style, although birds and snakes are plentiful. Figures 3 and 4 show two side views of a Bird Mother statue with multilingual inscriptions including some Ogam lettering. Figures 2-4 are line drawings by BH Moseley.

Figure 1 is a wonderful bird artifact having uneven stroke feathers that are comparable with many examples of Ogam writing translated by the late Professor Barry Fell. The suggested lower Mississippi location is exellent for an interpretation of writing by visitors with Keltic and Carthaginian heritage during the Roman era. Dr Peet called this figure a Thunder Bird, but we prefer to recognize the Earth Mother as a bird symbol accompanied by her Earth Father consort symbolized by the serpent.

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Figure 1. This is an alleged Thunder Bird rock drawing, probably from the lower Mississippi River basin (from SD Peet, The Mound Builders. 1903.). Notice the snake figure and the Ogam strokes.

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Bourne Stone Gives Evidence Of Early Atlantic Crossing

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by, John J White, III, Beverley H. Moseley, Jr., and Charles F. Herberger

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal

 

[Editor’s Note: The visit of Dr. Charles Herberger to the 2001 MES Symposium prompted us to prepare an update of an old epigraphic diffusion report. It is amazing that this brief message has an aura of legitimacy, whereas many large sites with 100+ letters are denounced as frauds by alleged experts.]

Like it or not, the colonial settlers of America were confronted with traces of cultural diffusion from the very beginning. The topics included Black Indians, Moslem crescent ornaments, Welsh-speaking Indians, Melungeons (Moroscos from Spain), Indians with caucasian appearances, religious elements similar to Christianity, legends that sounded like they had influences from prior Atlantic explorers, and numerous Native American words that appeared to be borrowings from Europe and Africa. Later scattered artifacts and inscriptions were found, and the steady influx of peoples from historical Asia was detected. Few people will calm that any small number of these observations is conclusive, but the large quantity of such suggestive findings leaves little doubt that our ancestors have been traveling about the world from long before the detectable history of mankind right down to present times.

One of the first inscriptions noted and interpreted was the so-called Bourne Stone of western Cape Cod, whose lettering suggests that Carthaginian-type people writing with the Ibero-Punic script may have reached the New England coast as early as 475 BCE. This Whittall-Fell collaboration was well accepted and occurred during the Golden Age of Barry Fell research. Later, people with inferior translation abilities began to realize the limitations of real-world epigraphy and voiced the obvious conclusion that many interpretations of ancient writing were dubious and certain circumstances possibly manipulated. The inscriptions are nevertheless significant artifacts!

The Cape Cod boundary with greater Massachusetts was defined roughly by Great Herring Pond and the connecting river called the Manumet that flows southward into the north end of Buzzards Bay. The Cape Cod Canal is the practical boundary today. The inscription find area is on the east (Cape Cod) side of the river, although there is speculation that it could have been transported from a site on Great Herring Pond. The local name has changed from Komassakumkanit to Bournedale to Bourne. There is good reason to think the so-called Bourne Stone was recognized as a curious inscription during the 1658-1676 CE era when it was used as a church doorstep. There is confidence that fraudmakers were far less prevalent during this era.

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European Maps, Chinese Sources

ChineseOrigin

By Chao C. Chien

 

Originally published at Diogenes Research

There is no longer doubt that the Age of Discovery was not brought on by European explorers. But then, if they did not “discover” the world, who did? Of course, as many overly eager revisionist theorists allege, the Chinese did, basically on account of the grand maritime naval exercises conducted by the Ming Chinese at the beginning of the 15th century being so close to the start of the European discoveries. Of course, some are driven by reasons that are more personal, such as nationalism. However, is that enough of a justification for revising history? No, that is not. We need something more concrete. I have furnished an argument, based on the analyses of factual evidence, in the book The Chinese Origin of the Age of Discover. Indeed it is now being serialized right here on this website. Nevertheless, it is clear that to some readers that which is being presented in the book may still prove too complex for comprehension. After all, one cannot expect we all be experts in the fields of history, geography, linguistics, philology, and cartography. So, in this article I shall take what is in the book and expand it, in hope that we may all understand the research better.

Let us begin our story two centuries before the real action traditionally began. Hey, if we are to tell a story, why not start from the very beginning, right?

Back in the late 12th century a poor Mongol boy was born in Siberia, but the poor boy was to grow up and become “the” greatest military leader the world had known, greater than Alexander and all the other pretenders.

This boy was name Temujin, better known to us as Genghis Khan. Many scholars had tried their hands at translating this title. Some claimed that it meant a king as great as the ocean, others said it meant ruler over all. In essence, it is basically what Westerners call King of Kings, or so-and-so “The Great.”

Genghis Khan spent his entire adult life leading his mighty Siberian horsemen conquering nations. When he had consolidated the Siberian tribes into an almighty fighting force, his newly created nation came into contact with several neighbors, notably the Jin (forerunners of the Manchu who several hundred years later conquered China) on it south and southeast, and Xi Xia, or Western Xia of a people called Tanguts on it southwest. In 1206 Genghis Khan took out Xi Xia. Then he turned on the Jin, erstwhile overlord of the Mongols. By 1215 Genghis Khan had sacked the Jin capital, present day Beijing, China. Jin then moved its capital to Kaifeng in present day Hunan Province of China, south of the yellow River. Song China by then had shrunk to the south of the Yangtze River. Genghis Khan passed away in 1227, but his son Ogotai Khan finished the job in 1234 and snuffed out the Jin.

Previously the land of the Jin, northern China, belonged to the kingdom of Liao of the Khitan people, who had captured the land from the Song Chinese, forcing the latter to move south and became what historians called the Southern Song. In 1125 Liao was taken over by the Jin. The remnants of the Liao royalty fled west and established the kingdom of Kara-Khitai in present day Chinese Turkestan, Xinjiang Province and Central Asia. Kara means west, thus in Chinese the kingdom is known as Western Liao. The name Khitan was pronounced in the west as Khitai, which in time evolved into Cathay. The people of the west identified them with the Chinese, thus the names Khitai (Russian Kitai) and Cathay became the names of China.

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The Propagation of a Myth

CCChien

By Chao C. Chien

 

Originally published by Diogenes Research.org

 

In a recent BBC News posting a famous medieval map was once more marveled at. This is the famous 1507 “Map of America” by the German cartographer Waldseemuller (See http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-30840318).

WaldseemullerSouthAmerica

The 1507 Waldseemuller World Map South America

This map is famous on account of it being the first world map to show the name America. It is now virtually accepted history that the name was derived from an Italian “explorer” named Amerigo Vespucci who allegedly participated in a couple of trans-Atlantic crossings and visited the northeastern coast of South America in the early 1,500. It is said that he came back to Europe and wrote about his adventures. His writings got so popular that when the German mapmaker Waldseemuller got wind of it he put Vespucci’s name on the new continent in his new map. Note that this happened just about 50 years after Gutenberg “invented” the movable type printing press. It had to be a near miracle that Vespucci’s account circulated so widely when the publishing business was still in its infancy. Aspiring writers today can only dream of such success.

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Ancient Fortresses of the Ohio Valley, Part V: Processed Goods, Packaging and Transportation

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Ancient Fortresses of the Ohio Valley, Part V: Processed Goods, Packaging and Transportation

By
 Rick Osmon
Originally published in Ancient American Magazine Issue # 105

When we think of ancient trade by ancient merchants, we usually think in terms of durable goods, that is, things or materials that have survived rot and decay to the present day. We think mostly of those things because it’s what we can see or touch. It’s not just earthworks, stone, shells, bone, metal, ceramics, or fabric, either. Pollens, foodstuff remains, wood, seeds, insect remains, domesticated plant and animal remains, paint, language, and the big one, DNA, drive our thoughts and are all are tools we can use to reconstruct some of the goings on of long ago merchants. Some of that trade was from farther afield and much more rapid in transit than most people ever dreamed. Read more

The Lost Gods and Tablet of Prehistoric Michigan

mertz

By, Henriette Mertz

 

 

Originally published in Ancient American Magazine.

Reprinted with permission from The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal, Beverley Moseley

 

The Newberry tablet no longer exists. Found on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, it represented only one of thousands of inscribed artifacts recovered from mounds dotting the state from roughly 1890 to 1920, most of which were destroyed. The enormity of such a loss to history and inscribed artifacts were sacrificed to the hypothesis that no ancient peoples, other than the historic Indian, ever arrived in America. The tragic disappearance of priceless, irreplaceable material must be born by University of Michigan officials, whose responsibility it was to preserve these matters.

The prehistory of the Copper Country, long haunted by tales of a bygone race has yet to be told. Few Americans are even aware of the extensive mining activity that took place on Isle Royale in Lake Superior or along the Trap Range of the Upper Peninsula where approximately 500,000 tons of pure copper were mined out sometime between 1800 and 1200 B.C.

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Calalus 775-900 A.D. : A Re-examination of the Bent Artifacts – PART 2

TusconLeadCrosses.DiscoverySite

By, Cyclone Covey.

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Volume 16

 

The Latin Texts told–in halting Classical clauses but in more characteristically Medieval handling–of a “kingdom” of Jews who traced their antecedents back to the mighty King Benjamin who had been brought to Rome from the Seine to build Aurelian’s Wall and later was slain by Thebans.  The people comprising his followers in the eight century came from Britain, Gaul, and Rome. A scribe, Joseph, was among the segment of British origin. His son, who styles himself OL., would have been born in America. He is the semi-literate and possibly senile author of the double-cross inscriptions, evidently int he extremity of the colony’s final investment by the so-called Toltezus. According to OL, a great number of his coreligionsists, under their king, Theodore, crossed the sea from Rome in 775 (which, by the way, would have been the year following Charlemagne’s ominous visit to Pope Hadrian) and founded a capital city they called “Rhoda.” After a disastrous early defeat at the hands of the Toltezus, the colonists recouped under a warrior, King Jacob (779-785), a native of Britain, and gained the upper hand under a remarkable king, Israel I, a native of Gaul, who reigned 67 years. War had resumed by the time he died in 852, and his already-elderly successor, Israel II, had a difficult six-year reign. But Israel III, who took over in 858, reestablished colonial suzerainty over the Toltezus. In or before 880 he magnanimously granted them independence. But a sanhedrin banished him from this, and Israel IV’s war to resubjugate turned into a war of mutual extermination. In 895 OL recorded that the war still raged; 3,000 had been slain; the leaders with their principal men had been captured; it was uncertain how long life would continue. His final date, 900, indicates that Rhoda held out without hope for another five years.

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Were Prehistoric Copper Oxhide Ingots manufactured on the Mississippi coast near the mouth of the Mississippi River?

jay

By,

Jay S.Wakefield, jswakefield@comcast.net

 

Copper: According to American Indian oral tradition, Michigan copper was mined in antiquity by “red haired white-skinned ‘marine men’ who came from across the sea”. Tens of thousands of pits, up to 30’ deep, were mined using fire-setting and stone hammers, with an estimated half a billion tons of pure crystalized copper removed from the glacier-exposed lava beds. From wood timbers anaerobically preserved under water in the ancient mine pits, this mining has been radiocarbon dated to between 2400 BC and 1200 BC, a period of more than a thousand years. During this same period, Europe experienced the Bronze Age, though historians and archaeologists now say they have no idea where the copper came from. One of the more interesting finds in digging out one of these old mine holes (Drier & Du Temple, Prehistoric Copper Mining in the Lake Superior Region) was a Walrus skin bag, indicating the miners had traveled over seas in the north. If people came from overseas to mine copper in Michigan during the Bronze Age, there can be little doubt they transported it back overseas for use in the manufacture of bronze.

 

Ancient routes for the transport of Michigan’s copper have been traced downstream from the mines on Isle Royale and the Keweenaw Peninsula, past storage pits with corroded copper in them, and beyond Beaver Island, with its ancient raised garden beds and huge 39-stone circle. In the Great Lakes, water levels fluctuated widely, as ice dams retreated, and the land rebounded from the glacial weight. Around 2300 BC there was a high water stage, called the “Nipissing Stage”. Dr. Jim Schertz, Professor Emeritus with the Ancient Earthworks Society (Old Water Levels and Waterways during the Ancient Copper Mining Era) says that when the water rose 40-50 feet above present levels, an outlet opened into the Illinois River, through the present Chicago Ship Canal. On the south bank, where the river started, stood a 3,000 pound stone block, overlooking Lake Michigan. Known as the Waubansee Stone, carved with the face of a man with a beard and holes connecting the bowl at the top to the mouth of the face. Another is said to have been on the north bank. At these stones, sacrifices may have been made prior to the perilous voyages, loaded with copper, down the rivers to Poverty Point, Louisiana.

 

Poverty Point: Six huge earthmounds and six enormous concentric earth rings characterize the enigmatic Archaic period town of Poverty Point, formerly accessible only by boat from the Mississippi. The site is carbon dated to 2400 BC, with the big mounds made around 1500 BC. It is one of the largest, and oldest centers of civilization on Earth. Jean Hunt, then President of the Louisiana Mounds Society, wrote in 1993 in Ancient American Magazine that “the Poverty Point archaeologist or curator talked about traces of large “spots” of copper on the surface, which he thought might have represented places where raw copper from the Michigan mines was placed while awaiting trans-shipment”. Dexter and Martin (America’s Ancient Stone Relics) report that Mitchell Hillman, Assistant Curator for the Louisiana Office of State Parks, has found spots of copper on the surface both north and south of Poverty Point, for a distance of five to fifteen miles, on both sides of the river. Researcher Daniel Wood, in another Ancient American article, “Bronze Age Michigan”, describes a 20’x50’ Torch Lake (Keweenaw) pit found to contain 20 tons of carbonate of copper, dated c.1800 BC. Other pits were discovered as far east as Sault Ste Marie, and others in southern Wisconsin. Early in 2006, a magnetic gradiometry study done at Poverty Point by Mike Hargrave and Burley Clay shows large dark spots that were described as metal “hits” (see Rocks & Rows).

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