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Ancient Fortresses of the Ohio Valley, Part V: Processed Goods, Packaging and Transportation

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Ancient Fortresses of the Ohio Valley, Part V: Processed Goods, Packaging and Transportation By Rick Osmon Originally published in Ancient American Magazine Issue # 105 When we think of ancient trade by ancient merchants, we usually think in terms of durable goods, that is, things

The Lost Gods and Tablet of Prehistoric Michigan

mysticsymbol

By, Henriette Mertz     Originally published in Ancient American Magazine. Reprinted with permission from The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal, Beverley Moseley   The Newberry tablet no longer exists. Found on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, it represented only one of thousands of inscribed artifacts

Calalus 775-900 A.D. : A Re-examination of the Bent Artifacts – PART 2

TusconLeadCrosses.DiscoverySite

By, Cyclone Covey. Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Volume 16   The Latin Texts told–in halting Classical clauses but in more characteristically Medieval handling–of a “kingdom” of Jews who traced their antecedents back to the mighty King Benjamin who had been brought to

Were Prehistoric Copper Oxhide Ingots manufactured on the Mississippi coast near the mouth of the Mississippi River?

jay

By, Jay S.Wakefield, jswakefield@comcast.net   Copper: According to American Indian oral tradition, Michigan copper was mined in antiquity by “red haired white-skinned ‘marine men’ who came from across the sea”. Tens of thousands of pits, up to 30’ deep, were mined using fire-setting and stone

Black Olmecs Likely Were West Africans

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By John J. White, III Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Journal Volume 16   Reporting and interest in ancient history is rather ethnocentric. The shortage of authors with Black African heritage leads to an understatement of Black African participation in Cultural Diffusion to the

West Africans Traded in the Caribbean Basin Before Columbus According to Van Sertima

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By, John J White, III Originally Published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Newsletter Volume 25   Ivan Van Sertima and Barry Fell made major impacts on the ancient history establishment in 1976 when they published their famous books. The MES joined forces with Barry Fell

Ancient Lime Kiln found at Newport, RI

Gunnar

I have identified the so-called “foundation structure” of the Newport Grant House as a lime kiln on the basis of two vents in the north and south sections that nobody else has seemed to notice. It was the opinion of historian James Isham (1895) that

Poverty Point, The Manufacturing of Copper Oxhides for the Atlantic Copper Trade

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Bronze Age Town & Gulf Ports on the Copper Trail Open-fire manufacturing of Copper Oxhides (NE Louisiana, & Mississippi c.2000-700 BC)   J.S. Wakefield, jayswakefield@yahoo.com   Photos coming soon, apologies from AA staff.   Summary The “Late Archaic” Poverty Point earthworks in Louisiana are the

Where Did The 4,000 Lenape Go?

stonetower

By, Myron Paine, Ph. D., Author Frozen Trail to Merica, Talerman and Walking to Merica. The Lenape walked over a frozen ocean to a land, where nothing was growing. Then God delivered geese and whales. This action was an experience similar to God delivering manna in a desert.   The

Lenape History Suppression

Paradigm+copy2v2

By, Myron Paine, Ph. D., Author Frozen Trail to Merica, Talerman and Walking to Merica. The Evidence indicates that The People of America spoke the SHORE (OLD NORSE) language, from Hudson Bay to the Isthmus of Panama, when the Europeans Invaded.  The NORSE CATHOLIC HISTORY is still being SUPPRESSED!  In AD 1346

Composition Analysis of Michigan Copper

Michigan Copper in the Mediterranean, The Shipping of Michigan Copper across the Atlantic in the Bronze Age   (Isle Royale and Keweenaw Peninsula, c. 2400BC-1200 BC) J.S. Wakefield, jayswakefield@yahoo.com   Photos coming soon for the article. Apologies from the AA staff.   Summary Recent scientific

Review of Book by Sorenson and Johannessen: a Death Knell for Isolationism

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by, John J White III Originally published in MES. The book World Trade and Biological Exchanges Before 1492 by John L. Sorenson and Carl L. Johanessen is now available. Collectively it represents a slam dunk victory for the historical interpretation of cultural diffusionism over the

Children of Ammon

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By, Carl Bjork http://home.comcast.net/~carlbjork/   Morning –  Were the people who carved the rocks in southwest Nevada the Children of Ammon or the Moab people?  Here is something to play with, no doubt way out on this line of thought.  But it is worth the

Calalus 775-900 A.D. : A Re-examination of the Bent Artifacts – PART 1

TusconLeadCrosses.Ceremonial

by Cyclone Covey, Professor of Ancient History, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (Editor’s Note: This paper #15 was presented at the first Westville Symposium in 1973 held at the outdoor tabernacle of the Westville Antebellum Living Museum located three miles southeast of Lumpkin, Georgia, a

Happy Native American Day

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Maybe something in these cards can help shed some light on who this man really was and what he really did. Who was it that said something like, if you don’t bring back enough gold each week to fill your hands, then they’ll be cut off.

Hebrew Script Atop Pinnacle Mountain

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Originally published in Ancient American Magazine Issue #83 by, Wayne May West Connecticut may seem an unlikely place to find ancient inscriptions from the Old World, but there they are, etched in granite atop a six hundred-foot mountain ten miles southwest of Hartford. Part of

What is going on here?

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  Originally published in Ancient American Magazine Issue #46 Last Spring, a subscriber called our attention to this remarkable photograph. Although the original print was obtained by Mr. Wayne May, no information was associated with its purchase. All we may deduce from this intriguing image

An Ancient “Boat” in Native American Rock Art?

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by Carl A. Bjork.   Originally published in Ancient American Magazine Issue #45   Southern California’s “Painted Rock” is among the relatively few surviving examples of ancient pictoglyphs created by the Chumash people before their extinction through contact with diseases contracted in the early 17th

Pennsylvania’s Elephant Petroglyph on the Allegheny River

Tom5

Written by Tom Anderton. Originally published in Ancient American magazine issue #83.   A rock shelter near Van, Pennsylvania known as “Rainbow Rock” features the carvings of snakes, a human figure, apparent bird tracks and dots, as described by The Pennsylvania Archaeologist (Vol. 42, No.

Kush/Eshi/Obatala – The Inventor of Ogam

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  CATHERINE ACHOLONU, DIRECTOR – CATHERINE ACHOLONU RESEARCH CENTER, ABUJA (www.carcafriculture.org) SUMMARY: Osiris was a universal god known all over the world by different names. He was the first Christ long before the days of Jesus and Chrisna. His equivalent entity in India was Rama.

Welcome to Ancient America!

IMG_1086[1]This web site is dedicated to investigating mysteries of history and archaeology, some that arose long before Christopher Columbus sailed west, some that are more recent. A few are current. There are articles by both amateurs and professionals, seasoned researchers and beginners, great writers, and people who simply have something to say. All of them get a voice here. (See contributors’ guide)

You may notice a close similarity to the name of a popular archaeology magazine, Ancient American. We are not that magazine, but we cooperate with it frequently. In fact, many of the writers you encounter here are also contributors to the Ancient American Magazine.

We also report / reprint from interest groups when the discussion brings important points to the table.

Both recent and rare books, other publications, videos, maps, artifacts and reproductions will come up for sale in our eShop.

But, mostly, we provide YOU a place to express your interests and opinions.


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Ancient Fortresses of the Ohio Valley, Part V: Processed Goods, Packaging and Transportation

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Ancient Fortresses of the Ohio Valley, Part V: Processed Goods, Packaging and Transportation

By
 Rick Osmon
Originally published in Ancient American Magazine Issue # 105

When we think of ancient trade by ancient merchants, we usually think in terms of durable goods, that is, things or materials that have survived rot and decay to the present day. We think mostly of those things because it’s what we can see or touch. It’s not just earthworks, stone, shells, bone, metal, ceramics, or fabric, either. Pollens, foodstuff remains, wood, seeds, insect remains, domesticated plant and animal remains, paint, language, and the big one, DNA, drive our thoughts and are all are tools we can use to reconstruct some of the goings on of long ago merchants. Some of that trade was from farther afield and much more rapid in transit than most people ever dreamed. Read more

The Lost Gods and Tablet of Prehistoric Michigan

mysticsymbol

By, Henriette Mertz

 

 

Originally published in Ancient American Magazine.

Reprinted with permission from The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal, Beverley Moseley

 

The Newberry tablet no longer exists. Found on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, it represented only one of thousands of inscribed artifacts recovered from mounds dotting the state from roughly 1890 to 1920, most of which were destroyed. The enormity of such a loss to history and inscribed artifacts were sacrificed to the hypothesis that no ancient peoples, other than the historic Indian, ever arrived in America. The tragic disappearance of priceless, irreplaceable material must be born by University of Michigan officials, whose responsibility it was to preserve these matters.

The prehistory of the Copper Country, long haunted by tales of a bygone race has yet to be told. Few Americans are even aware of the extensive mining activity that took place on Isle Royale in Lake Superior or along the Trap Range of the Upper Peninsula where approximately 500,000 tons of pure copper were mined out sometime between 1800 and 1200 B.C.

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Calalus 775-900 A.D. : A Re-examination of the Bent Artifacts – PART 2

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By, Cyclone Covey.

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Volume 16

 

The Latin Texts told–in halting Classical clauses but in more characteristically Medieval handling–of a “kingdom” of Jews who traced their antecedents back to the mighty King Benjamin who had been brought to Rome from the Seine to build Aurelian’s Wall and later was slain by Thebans.  The people comprising his followers in the eight century came from Britain, Gaul, and Rome. A scribe, Joseph, was among the segment of British origin. His son, who styles himself OL., would have been born in America. He is the semi-literate and possibly senile author of the double-cross inscriptions, evidently int he extremity of the colony’s final investment by the so-called Toltezus. According to OL, a great number of his coreligionsists, under their king, Theodore, crossed the sea from Rome in 775 (which, by the way, would have been the year following Charlemagne’s ominous visit to Pope Hadrian) and founded a capital city they called “Rhoda.” After a disastrous early defeat at the hands of the Toltezus, the colonists recouped under a warrior, King Jacob (779-785), a native of Britain, and gained the upper hand under a remarkable king, Israel I, a native of Gaul, who reigned 67 years. War had resumed by the time he died in 852, and his already-elderly successor, Israel II, had a difficult six-year reign. But Israel III, who took over in 858, reestablished colonial suzerainty over the Toltezus. In or before 880 he magnanimously granted them independence. But a sanhedrin banished him from this, and Israel IV’s war to resubjugate turned into a war of mutual extermination. In 895 OL recorded that the war still raged; 3,000 had been slain; the leaders with their principal men had been captured; it was uncertain how long life would continue. His final date, 900, indicates that Rhoda held out without hope for another five years.

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Were Prehistoric Copper Oxhide Ingots manufactured on the Mississippi coast near the mouth of the Mississippi River?

jay

By,

Jay S.Wakefield, jswakefield@comcast.net

 

Copper: According to American Indian oral tradition, Michigan copper was mined in antiquity by “red haired white-skinned ‘marine men’ who came from across the sea”. Tens of thousands of pits, up to 30’ deep, were mined using fire-setting and stone hammers, with an estimated half a billion tons of pure crystalized copper removed from the glacier-exposed lava beds. From wood timbers anaerobically preserved under water in the ancient mine pits, this mining has been radiocarbon dated to between 2400 BC and 1200 BC, a period of more than a thousand years. During this same period, Europe experienced the Bronze Age, though historians and archaeologists now say they have no idea where the copper came from. One of the more interesting finds in digging out one of these old mine holes (Drier & Du Temple, Prehistoric Copper Mining in the Lake Superior Region) was a Walrus skin bag, indicating the miners had traveled over seas in the north. If people came from overseas to mine copper in Michigan during the Bronze Age, there can be little doubt they transported it back overseas for use in the manufacture of bronze.

 

Ancient routes for the transport of Michigan’s copper have been traced downstream from the mines on Isle Royale and the Keweenaw Peninsula, past storage pits with corroded copper in them, and beyond Beaver Island, with its ancient raised garden beds and huge 39-stone circle. In the Great Lakes, water levels fluctuated widely, as ice dams retreated, and the land rebounded from the glacial weight. Around 2300 BC there was a high water stage, called the “Nipissing Stage”. Dr. Jim Schertz, Professor Emeritus with the Ancient Earthworks Society (Old Water Levels and Waterways during the Ancient Copper Mining Era) says that when the water rose 40-50 feet above present levels, an outlet opened into the Illinois River, through the present Chicago Ship Canal. On the south bank, where the river started, stood a 3,000 pound stone block, overlooking Lake Michigan. Known as the Waubansee Stone, carved with the face of a man with a beard and holes connecting the bowl at the top to the mouth of the face. Another is said to have been on the north bank. At these stones, sacrifices may have been made prior to the perilous voyages, loaded with copper, down the rivers to Poverty Point, Louisiana.

 

Poverty Point: Six huge earthmounds and six enormous concentric earth rings characterize the enigmatic Archaic period town of Poverty Point, formerly accessible only by boat from the Mississippi. The site is carbon dated to 2400 BC, with the big mounds made around 1500 BC. It is one of the largest, and oldest centers of civilization on Earth. Jean Hunt, then President of the Louisiana Mounds Society, wrote in 1993 in Ancient American Magazine that “the Poverty Point archaeologist or curator talked about traces of large “spots” of copper on the surface, which he thought might have represented places where raw copper from the Michigan mines was placed while awaiting trans-shipment”. Dexter and Martin (America’s Ancient Stone Relics) report that Mitchell Hillman, Assistant Curator for the Louisiana Office of State Parks, has found spots of copper on the surface both north and south of Poverty Point, for a distance of five to fifteen miles, on both sides of the river. Researcher Daniel Wood, in another Ancient American article, “Bronze Age Michigan”, describes a 20’x50’ Torch Lake (Keweenaw) pit found to contain 20 tons of carbonate of copper, dated c.1800 BC. Other pits were discovered as far east as Sault Ste Marie, and others in southern Wisconsin. Early in 2006, a magnetic gradiometry study done at Poverty Point by Mike Hargrave and Burley Clay shows large dark spots that were described as metal “hits” (see Rocks & Rows).

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Black Olmecs Likely Were West Africans

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By John J. White, III

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Journal Volume 16

 

Reporting and interest in ancient history is rather ethnocentric. The shortage of authors with Black African heritage leads to an understatement of Black African participation in Cultural Diffusion to the Americas. The leading contributor by far is Professor Ivan Van Sertima, who wrote the inspiring book They Came Before Columbus. He reports Mandinga Nubian and Egyptian travelers to ancient America in his many books.

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West Africans Traded in the Caribbean Basin Before Columbus According to Van Sertima

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By, John J White, III

Originally Published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Newsletter Volume 25

 

Ivan Van Sertima and Barry Fell made major impacts on the ancient history establishment in 1976 when they published their famous books. The MES joined forces with Barry Fell in 1983 and soon acquired the eastern Kentucky Ogham sites as a primary interest. The question of looking into the findings of Ivan Van Sertima, Thor Heyerdahl, George Carter, Clyde Keeler, or many others could not be given a large share of the precious energy available. With the passing of Victor Moseley before the Kentucky work was finished, the MES was responsive only to new opportunities that were easily acquired. These were Joe Mahan (ISAC), Cyclone Covey, Ethel Stewart, Zena Halpern, and Russell Burrows (Burrows Cave) plus some notable locals like Hu McCulloch, Bill Conner, Victor Kachur, and Ken Zimmerman.

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Mahan, Covey, and Stewart had interest in Asia (Native American origins) Fell was the expert on Polynesia and North Africa and there was little American interest in sub-Saharan Africa, except for Van Sertima and his impressive underlying Journal of African Civilizations. Fell gave some attention to Van Sertima, but as fortune would have it, there appeared more dividends to be reaped but responding to South African experts, such as Raymond Dart and Credo Mutwa. The reports of African faces on Burrows Cave artifacts (allegedly Carthaginian sailors) was the first MES contribution to African history. The current author has made additional small efforts in recent years.

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Ancient Lime Kiln found at Newport, RI

Gunnar

I have identified the so-called “foundation structure” of the Newport Grant House as a lime kiln on the basis of two vents in the north and south sections that nobody else has seemed to notice. It was the opinion of historian James Isham (1895) that the Old Stone Tower had to be a Colonial windmill on the basis of his belief that the foundation of the Grant House had mortar and arches with triangular keystones — just like the Newport Tower; and the Colonial Grant House was built circa 1670. Therefore, the Old Stone Tower had to have been built at the same time. My investigation of the photographic archive clearly indicates that there were three sections of an ancient lime kiln; and these are out of alignment with the later Colonial House. Also, Isham noted that Colonial builders often reused abandoned foundations from earlier structures. Prior to my research, nobody has found the industrial-grade lime kiln that was needed to produce lime mortar from oyster shells in sufficient amounts to provide the five tons of lime mortar that was needed to erect the forty-ton Stone Tower. This kiln would appear to be the missing kiln. Anyway, news of this development might provoke a renewed look at the evidence.

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Poverty Point, The Manufacturing of Copper Oxhides for the Atlantic Copper Trade

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Bronze Age Town & Gulf Ports on the Copper Trail

Open-fire manufacturing of Copper Oxhides

(NE Louisiana, & Mississippi c.2000-700 BC)

 

J.S. Wakefield, jayswakefield@yahoo.com

 

Photos coming soon, apologies from AA staff.

 

Summary

The “Late Archaic” Poverty Point earthworks in Louisiana are the earliest and largest monuments in prehistoric North America. The site that remains covers a square mile, features six concentric segmented semi-circular walls, surrounded by six large mounds. The site is shown to be a prehistoric town, and a manufacturing and trading center which was a part of the worldwide megalithic culture. The site design reveals encoded latitudes of transatlantic sailing routes, and evidence of multicultural involvement in the manufacturing of copper oxhide ingots.

 

Introduction & Dating

The Poverty Point complex is a Louisiana State Commemorative Area, open to the public, and has been a National Historical Landmark since 1962. Collectors have been picking up artifacts since the 1870’s, but it was not recognized as such a huge site until the ring pattern was recognized in a 1938 aerial photograph (Fig.2, right). The American Museum of Natural History dug at the site in 1942/3 and 1955, and showed “how large and unusual [the site] was” (Ref.1). Today, there is a road built through the rings, and 15,000 visitors a year pass through the site’s museum. Some of the illustrations used in this article are from the book (The Ancient Mounds of Poverty Point, Place of the Rings) and website of John L. Gibson, previously employed as the site archaeologist, who devoted his career to the study of Poverty Point.

 

The site is located in the northeastern corner of Louisiana, northwest of Vicksburg, Mississippi at 33°N (Fig.1). Poverty Point is built on Maçon Ridge, a plateau 90 miles long, and five miles wide, in the swampy floodplains of the Mississippi River. Gibson reports 38 radiocarbon dates, all between 2278 BC (2470-2040) and 650 BC, with most between 1500 and 1300 BC. Gibson says that while the land and waters were biologically rich, the richest asset was the location. “This was one of the few places in the entire Mississippi valley where a departing pirogue could have been paddled without portages”(Refs.1,2).

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Where Did The 4,000 Lenape Go?

stonetower

By,

The Lenape walked over a frozen ocean to a land, where nothing was growing.

Then God delivered geese and whales. This action was an experience similar to God delivering manna in a desert.

 

The Lenape history says that the number of Lenape actually multiplied! The Lenape History tells of the Lenape holding a meeting soon after they came to America.

                       The Lenape invited

people, who were in America, to attend the meeting. That meeting was the first of many meetings of government by council in America. The U.S. government is, basically, a government by council.
At the meeting The Lenape immigrants elected an American to be Judge. The judge had red hair!

           The Norwegians sent a rescue mission. 
The Lenape recorded that “No one went from here to there.”

God was not providing enough food for both the local Christians and the 4,000 Lenape.
             The Lenape divided to make the journey

around the southern Christian tribes. White Beaver took his band east and then south to Connecticut. 

Snow Bird took his band northeast and then south, up the Nelson and Reds Rivers to Minnesota, “the pleasant land.”

When they were at Lake Winnipeg,
The meeting of many rivers was to the east. The pleasant land was to the south.

The relentless Little Ice Age weather forced both groups, and the local Lenape, to move further south. White Beaver’s group rowed down the coast. They found a Miami (heartland) in Florida. Snow Bird’s group began a 3,000-mile, 150-year migration to New York via the Dakotas. (Dakota means “cold.”)

Lenape History Suppression

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By,

The Evidence indicates that The People of America spoke the SHORE (OLD NORSE) language, from Hudson Bay to the Isthmus of Panama, when the Europeans Invaded.

 The NORSE CATHOLIC HISTORY is still being SUPPRESSED!

 In AD 1346 4,000 Norse vanished from Greenland.

 Where DID they go?

 Dr. Myron Paine wanted to find out.
  He found the Maalan Aarum, the Lenape “Bible.”

 Then he found eight volumes of Reider T. Sherwin’s books, The Viking and the Red Man.  In the forward of volume IV, Sherwin concluded that the Algonquin Indian (a.k.a. Lenape) Language was Old Norse.

 Dr. Paine used the 30,000 Lenape words to decipher the Maalan Aarum.  The first two chapters are the Lenape Bible—Genesis.  The word “Lenape” appears twice in Genesis.

 Dr. Paine recognized that chapter 3 was history.  He used the words in The Viking and the Red Man to decipher chapter 3.  

 Dr. Frank Esposito, Kean University, knew Lenape.  He encouraged students to vet the Maalan Aarum.  Craig Judge deciphered 10 verses of Chapter 4.  

 Judge’s achievement is evidence that The Viking and the Red Man is valid knowledge.  The The Viking and the Red Man can be used by persistent scholars, who want to understand Lenape words from four centuries to four seconds ago.  

 The Viking and the Red Man has over 30,000 Lenape (a.k.a. Algonquin) words with their meanings and the original Old Norse pronunciation. Many place names in eastern North America are Lenape.  Many cities, over 10 U.S. states, and 3 provinces in Canada have Lenape names. Dr. Paine posted the first 37 deciphered stanzas of chapter 3 on the Internet as LENAPE LAND.  The format works with Smart Phones. The Lenape history clearly shows that the 4,000 Norse WALKED to America.

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