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Calalus 775-900 A.D. : A Re-examination of the Bent Artifacts – PART 1

TusconLeadCrosses.Ceremonial

by Cyclone Covey, Professor of Ancient History, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (Editor’s Note: This paper #15 was presented at the first Westville Symposium in 1973 held at the outdoor tabernacle of the Westville Antebellum Living Museum located three miles southeast of Lumpkin, Georgia, a

Happy Native American Day

ccwiki

Maybe something in these cards can help shed some light on who this man really was and what he really did. Who was it that said something like, if you don’t bring back enough gold each week to fill your hands, then they’ll be cut off.

Hebrew Script Atop Pinnacle Mountain

PinnacleRock

Originally published in Ancient American Magazine Issue #83 by, Wayne May West Connecticut may seem an unlikely place to find ancient inscriptions from the Old World, but there they are, etched in granite atop a six hundred-foot mountain ten miles southwest of Hartford. Part of

What is going on here?

Wayne#1

  Originally published in Ancient American Magazine Issue #46 Last Spring, a subscriber called our attention to this remarkable photograph. Although the original print was obtained by Mr. Wayne May, no information was associated with its purchase. All we may deduce from this intriguing image

An Ancient “Boat” in Native American Rock Art?

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by Carl A. Bjork.   Originally published in Ancient American Magazine Issue #45   Southern California’s “Painted Rock” is among the relatively few surviving examples of ancient pictoglyphs created by the Chumash people before their extinction through contact with diseases contracted in the early 17th

Pennsylvania’s Elephant Petroglyph on the Allegheny River

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Written by Tom Anderton. Originally published in Ancient American magazine issue #83.   A rock shelter near Van, Pennsylvania known as “Rainbow Rock” features the carvings of snakes, a human figure, apparent bird tracks and dots, as described by The Pennsylvania Archaeologist (Vol. 42, No.

Kush/Eshi/Obatala – The Inventor of Ogam

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  CATHERINE ACHOLONU, DIRECTOR – CATHERINE ACHOLONU RESEARCH CENTER, ABUJA (www.carcafriculture.org) SUMMARY: Osiris was a universal god known all over the world by different names. He was the first Christ long before the days of Jesus and Chrisna. His equivalent entity in India was Rama.

Dinosaurs and C-14

HughMiller3

My article to the French organization and mining engineer and philosopher, Dominiqule Tassot is attached. Some minor additions are in red and an important epilogue I wrote 3/12/14 are in green.  www.dinosaurc14ages.com    by Hugh Miller   Reflections on Oral and Poster Presentations of Percent of Modern

Rare Genes from History Revisited

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Rare Genes from History Revisited by, Donald Yates Check Out DNA Fingerprint Plus $300  It’s been a year and a half since DNA Consultants introduced Rare Genes from History. We republish here the original press release from October 2012 as a means of familiarizing new and old customers

Muslims In The Americas Before Columbus

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by Dr. Youssef Mrouch   by John White and Jim Leslie   Originally published in the MES Journal   This is a news summary of an internet article discovered by Jim Leslie.  Our previous knowledge of Muslim diffusion was limited to the translations of Arabic

Lenape

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by, Myron Paine, Ph.D. http://lenape-epic.blogspot.com/ SEE THE LENAPE FIRST CONCLUSIONS NORSE CATHOLICS have been in America for 1,000 years.      Myron Paine has devoted 14 years of research to Norse Catholics in America.  He started by making a hypothesis:      During the Little

Remarkable Monuments of Southern Alberta

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by Warren W. Dexter, FES, DFFMES, Elkhart, Indiana   Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Journal, Volume 17, Number 1, 2003   HODO or DOLMEN Just west of the WRITING ON STONE PROVINCIAL PARK in southern Alberta, Canada is located a wonderfully positioned DOLMEN appearing

Olmec Beards

Olmec head

by Cyclone Covey, DFMES, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, N.C.   Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Journal, Volume 20, 2006.   Comments on: Lawrence F. Athy, “Foreign Influences on the Priesthood & Nobility of Precolumbian America,” ESOP XVII (1983), 106-120 & “Beards in North America

The Oklahoma Runestone

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by Cyclone Covey, Ph.D.   Originally published in Ancient American Magazine March/April 1994.   In the 1830’s, soon after the forced removal of aboriginal tribes into Indian Territory, Chocktaw hunters roaming vast, vacant, forested hills came upon the mammoth runestone in an idyllic vale of

Traditional Relationships Of The Southeastern Indians

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by Joseph B. Mahan, Executive Director, Westville Village, Lumpkin, Georgia   Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal   [Editor’s Note:  The first Westville Symposium, the parent of ISAC, was held in 1972.  The Dr. Joseph Mahan, DFMES story can be found documented in

The Voree Plates

Voree Plates

by Rick Hurd, “*REVELATION. The Angel of the Lord came unto me, James, on the first day of September, in the year eighteen hundred and fortyfive, and the light Shined about him above the brightness of the sun, and he showed unto me the plates of the sealed

The Serpent Effigy of Lyons, Kansas

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by, John J White, III, Beverley H. Moseley, Jr, and Cyclone Covey Originally published in the Midwestern Epigraphic Society Newsletter, Volume 18, Number 2.   A leading objective of the MES founders was the reporting of new information and interpretations that would lead to a

A Tradition of Giants: More Questions Than Answers

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Originally published in Ancient American magazine. by Ross Hamilton Long ago in central North America, there was a great civil war. It was a war owning many battles, and had an incredible loss of life. It wasn’t the North versus the South, although it sponsored

Holocaust of Giants: The Great Smithsonian Cover-up

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  First published in Ancient American magazine and later in Nexus magazine. by Ross Hamilton Noted Native American author and professor of law emeritus, Vine Deloria, writes in a personal communication: It’s probably better that so few of the ruins and remains were tied in

Jimmies Pipe

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by, Jim Burchell   John Young of London, Kentucky found this pipe under a rock shelter in Clay County, Kentucky.  He brought it to me for examination.  The pipe was broken but I was able to piece it together and trace the writings that were on

Welcome to Ancient America!

IMG_1086[1]This web site is dedicated to investigating mysteries of history and archaeology, some that arose long before Christopher Columbus sailed west, some that are more recent. A few are current. There are articles by both amateurs and professionals, seasoned researchers and beginners, great writers, and people who simply have something to say. All of them get a voice here. (See contributors’ guide)

You may notice a close similarity to the name of a popular archaeology magazine, Ancient American. We are not that magazine, but we cooperate with it frequently. In fact, many of the writers you encounter here are also contributors to the Ancient American Magazine.

We also report / reprint from interest groups when the discussion brings important points to the table.

Both recent and rare books, other publications, videos, maps, artifacts and reproductions will come up for sale in our eShop.

But, mostly, we provide YOU a place to express your interests and opinions.

Calalus 775-900 A.D. : A Re-examination of the Bent Artifacts – PART 1

TusconLeadCrosses.Ceremonial

by Cyclone Covey, Professor of Ancient History, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC

(Editor’s Note: This paper #15 was presented at the first Westville Symposium in 1973 held at the outdoor tabernacle of the Westville Antebellum Living Museum located three miles southeast of Lumpkin, Georgia, a town located south of Columbus (for a description, see MEJ 9, 7-12 (1995)). Both the Symposium and the Museum were organized through the efforts of Dr. Joseph B Mahan, Jr (1921-1995). This was two years prior to publication of Professor’s Covey’s persuasive book Calalus, a Roman Jewish colony intertrepation of the famous Bent Artifacts of Tucson, Arizona. The topic remained low key until Barry Fell & Co. fired several critical broadsides in ESOP 19 (1990). When we heard the artifacts were on display at the State Museum in Tucson, we thought it was time to hear the story discussed again. The article that follows after this one is the author’s 30-year update.)

 

Originally published in the MES Journal, Volume 16.

 

In the area around Tucson, Arizona, rain and river-floods, dissolving the desert’s abundant calcium carbonate which, over slow centuries, percolates through and through, has turned the topsoil into cement-hard caliche that has accumulated in layers from a yard to more than two yards deep since the Pleistocene. It is in nature of the caliche formation that, once fractured, it may repack firmly but will not re-fuse for at least 500 years that we know of. It may be dismaying to realize as we recommence an old discussion that no one has been able to find a way to insert objects through many feet of undisturbed caliche, let alone past locked-in boulders, and leave no trace of the fracturing. Pockets of loose sand and conglomerate as well as tiny tunnels of onetime root systems and of lizards and other burrowers do ramify through the caliche layers, but the problem of driving even a short piece of small pipe to and along such a channel for more than yard undetectably becomes formidable even without the further problems of inducing cemented encrustration. But what about a 62 1/2 pound, two-inch-thick cross a foot and a half long with a foot-long crossarm? What about the three-pound, eleven-ounce cross found six feet deep underneath a hundred pound boulder whose weight had bent it and which had to be broken from the boulder with a heavy pick? If these artifacts could somehow have been planted at their 3 1/2-to-6 1/2-foot depths and the drill-shafts somehow cemented back, the planters could scarcely have hoped that their painstaking art would ever be found. The 27 artifacts (counting joinable sections or fragments as one) excavated by Thomas Bent and many others from mid-September 1924 to mid-March 1930 in a hundred-square-foot area give in fact every indication of having been strewn at random as though by battle, then slowly covered and incorporated by the glacially forming caliche where they lay.

In the year 1884 Mexican laborers excavating through six feet of caliche about nine miles out oTucson in order to lay a limekiln turned up two metal swords. One of the workers gave the swords to his children, who in time lost them. The still rough and remote little frontier town of Tucson required a lot of lime for the white-plastering of its adobes; hence the line of caliche reducing kilns approximately a mile apart along the former bank of the once voluminous Santa Cruz. The hired laborers tediously trenched through the caliche the 21 1/2 feet from the fence beside Silverbell Road to the kiln for a path to haul firewood in and lime out. A solitary mesquite grew at the entrance to the path.

The whole line of kilns had long been abandoned forty years later when, on September 13, 1924, Charles Manier, a disabled war veteran who had lived in Tucson four years and on this day was driving back to town from a visit to Picture Rocks with his wife, daughter, and elderly father, stopped at the mesquite tree to inspect a typical limekiln of the old days. On the righthand embankment along the trench-path within three steps of the kiln foundation, forty years’ erosion had exposed something protruding three inches not quite five and a half feet below the pre-digging surface. Manier happened to spot this and borrowed his father’s cane to tap it. It sounded off; so he fetched his army pick-spade from the car and with great difficulty dug the object out of its solid caliche casing. It was the 62 1/2-pound cross.

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Happy Native American Day

ccwiki

Maybe something in these cards can help shed some light on who this man really was and what he really did.

Who was it that said something like, if you don’t bring back enough gold each week to fill your hands, then they’ll be cut off.

Thank you to anyone who can help with translations, or with any hidden clues.

 

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Christophe Colomb – Veritable – “Coming Back in Chains”

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Hebrew Script Atop Pinnacle Mountain

PinnacleRock

Originally published in Ancient American Magazine Issue #83

by, Wayne May

West Connecticut may seem an unlikely place to find ancient inscriptions from the Old World, but there they are, etched in granite atop a six hundred-foot mountain ten miles southwest of Hartford. Part of the narrow, linear Metacomet Ridge extending from Long Island Sound near New Haven to the Vermont border. Pinnacle Rock stands above the Quinnipiac and Farmington Rivers. Nearby, to the southeast, are the crumbling, concrete bunkers of what was once, during the paranoid “Cold War”, a Nike missile base.

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What is going on here?

Wayne#1

 

Originally published in Ancient American Magazine Issue #46

Wayne#4

Last Spring, a subscriber called our attention to this remarkable photograph. Although the original print was obtained by Mr. Wayne May, no information was associated with its purchase. All we may deduce from this intriguing image is that it appears to document an actual site, apparently sufficiently well known to have been visited by tourists in the late 19th century. Although the ladies and their clothes obviously belong to Western Civilization, their location could be anywhere. They might even have been wealthy European or American tourists in Polynesia, for all we know.

Wayne#2

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An Ancient “Boat” in Native American Rock Art?

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by Carl A. Bjork.

 

Originally published in Ancient American Magazine Issue #45

 

Southern California’s “Painted Rock” is among the relatively few surviving examples of ancient pictoglyphs created by the Chumash people before their extinction through contact with diseases contracted in the early 17th Century. Respected even by the rapacious Spaniards as “civilized Indians,” the Chumash were physically set apart from other Native Americans by their facial hair (most Indians were beardless) and occasionally fair complexions. They were also skilled mariners, and sailed tomols, or well-made boats somewhat resembling Viking ship-building practices, up and down the Pacific coast, even venturing as far as the off-shore islands of San Miguel and St. Nicholas.

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Pennsylvania’s Elephant Petroglyph on the Allegheny River

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Written by Tom Anderton.

Originally published in Ancient American magazine issue #83.

 

A rock shelter near Van, Pennsylvania known as “Rainbow Rock” features the carvings of snakes, a human figure, apparent bird tracks and dots, as described by The Pennsylvania Archaeologist (Vol. 42, No. 3, September 1972).  While these images are common visual components of petroglyphs found across North America, the elephant depicted inside a rectangle on the face of a large stone standing near “Rainbow Rock” is not.

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James L. Swauger, an expert in prehistoric rock art with more than seventy published reports dealing primarily with petroglyphs in the Ohio Valley, examined the elephant portrayal. “It is obvious at this time that the figure was carved recently by persons using metal tools, and that it has no relationship to the undoubted American Indian petroglyphs of the site,” he concluded in “The Bunola Head, A Forgery”, for The Pennsylvania Archeologist, Vol. 30, No. 2, Gettysburg. “Leo T. Sarnaki Carnegie Museum Photographer, concurred in this opinion, as did the half dozen others with whom I visited this site.”

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Kush/Eshi/Obatala – The Inventor of Ogam

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CATHERINE ACHOLONU, DIRECTOR – CATHERINE ACHOLONU RESEARCH CENTER, ABUJA (www.carcafriculture.org)

SUMMARY:

Osiris was a universal god known all over the world by different names. He was the first Christ long before the days of Jesus and Chrisna. His equivalent entity in India was Rama. He lived in Atlantis as its first priest-king. Filial rivalry caused him to leave Atlantis even before it fell and relocate to West Africa, a nearby land. There he build a city among the native Igbo cave-men and settled among them in anonymity and peace. But it was not to last because soon his fame reached world-wide and trouble came calling. Atlantis fell but Osiris, whom the native Igbo forest people called Eshi (from the root of the word Sirius), recorded the knowledge of Atlantis on stone and hid them (365 of them) in forests of ancient Nigeria. Edgar Cayce’s Readings confirm this. Osiris also left writings on bronze and copper, which were excavated in the 1950s by a young British archaeologist, called Thurstan Shaw. The goods found there would have filled an entire museum, yet it was not even a piece of the ice berg. A monarch’s grave was found who wore a regalia beaded with a whooping 111,000 coloured carnelian (glass) beads, a crescent copper crown with lozenge and zigzag cuttings, a copper breast-plate, beaded armbands, anklets made of rows of copper spirals. This was certainly no ordinary mortal, nor was Igbo Ukwu an ordinary civilization, but one of international ramifications, which must be sought in mythology and world History books. We therefore began the process of analysing the finds and the emblems in order to figure out whether Igbo Ukwu could well be that Pre-historic city which Osiris was reputed to have built in the Forest in the days of the Deluge – It was. Igbo Ukwu was in fact ancient Heliopolis, the capital of mythological Egypt otherwise known as Punt/Panchea.

The term Negro is derived from an ancient word Nagas, designating the most ancient Black race that populated the continents of Africa and, originally, also of Atlantis, who, according to legend, migrated from a sunken continent which in ancient records was known as Mu or Lemuria. Nagas are called the Lords of Fire and their symbol is the serpent or the fire-spitting serpent, otherwise called the dragon. In the ancient Tibetan epic story of the Birth of the Universe – Stanzas of Dzyan the “The Sons of Fire” are called “the Instructors” of the Sons of God and their emblem is “the Dragon of Wisdom”- the Mother whose nature is the spiraling whirlwind – the Swastika. Stanzas 11-12 of this timeless Tibetan epic hidden in the ancient caverns of the Himalayas, translated in part by Helen Blavatsky (The Secret Doctrine), speaks about “the First Great Waters” before the Deluge of Noah:

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Dinosaurs and C-14

HughMiller3

My article to the French organization and mining engineer and philosopher, Dominiqule Tassot is attached. Some minor additions are in red and an important epilogue I wrote 3/12/14 are in green.  www.dinosaurc14ages.com 

 

by Hugh Miller

 

Reflections on Oral and Poster Presentations of Percent of Modern C-14 (pmC) Content Studies of Dinosaur Bones given at the AOGS-AGU Singapore Conference – Offers support for the Abrupt Appearance Theory of Life origins and demonstrates predictive and reproducibility quality of the data for said theory.

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Introduction: On 9 April, 2012, all 10 coauthors were pleasantly surprised to receive an e-mail letter accepting our abstract on C-14 dating of dinosaur bones from the Asia Oceania Geoscience Society (AOGS). This was our sixth submission to as many conventions or regional conferences of geological or paleontological societies, so we were naturally delighted even though we were only awarded a poster session at the Singapore conference. In Singapore we were assigned to the Biogeoscience section BGO2-A012 and later Dr. Thomas Seiler of Germany was also allowed to give an oral presentation as there was an opening but none of our Ph.D. co-authors was available. The AOGS letter of acceptance with the title, abstract and list of authors from Europe and the United States reads as follows:

Dear Authors,

Congratulations! Your abstract has been accepted for presentation at the AOGS – AGU (WPGM) Joint Assembly 2012 taking place from 13 to 17 August, 2012 at the Resorts World Sentosa in Singapore. The review report is as shown. This and other meeting details – your presentation schedule, meeting registration, invoice, receipts, etc will be posted as they become available on your personal page on MARS.

BG02-A012 A COMPARISON OF δ13C & pMC VALUES for TEN CRETACEOUS-JURASSIC DINOSAUR BONES from TEXAS to ALASKA USA, CHINA AND EUROPE [Note: pMC is percent of modern C-14]
Hugh MILLER, Hugh OWEN, Robert BENNETT, Jean DE PONTCHARRA, Maciej GIERTYCH, Joe TAYLOR, Marie Claire VAN OOSTERWYCH, Otis KLINE, Doug WILDER, Beatrice DUNKEL

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Rare Genes from History Revisited

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Rare Genes from History Revisited

by, Donald Yates
Check Out DNA Fingerprint Plus $300 

It’s been a year and a half since DNA Consultants introduced Rare Genes from History. We republish here the original press release from October 2012 as a means of familiarizing new and old customers with this unique autosomal marker test, exclusive to our company. Purchase now for only $149 ($134.10 with your customer discount).

For descriptions of all 26 Rare Genes from History, visit the product page.

If you have received your Rare Genes from History results, we encourage you to discuss them with others in the free forums at DNA Communities. How many did you get? Were they European, Native American, African or Asian? Do you think you got a given rare gene from your mother or father? From both?
PRESS RELEASE
Rare Genes from History:  DNA Consultants’ Next-Generation Ancestry Markers

PHOENIX — (Oct. 1, 2012) — DNA typing has gone from successes in the criminal justice system and paternity testing to new heights in mapping genetic diseases and tracing human history. John Butler in the conclusion to his textbook Fundamentals of Forensic DNA Typing raised an important question about these trends. How might genetic genealogy information intersect with forensic DNA testing in the future?

“At DNA Consultants, that new chapter in DNA testing arrived several years ago,” said Donald Yates, chief research officer and founder. “As we approach our tenth anniversary, examining human population diversity continues to be the whole thrust of our research, and it just gets more and more exciting.”

The company’s DNA database atDNA 4.0 captures and puts to use every single published academic study on forensic STR markers, the standard CoDIS markers used in DNA profiles for paternity and personal identification. In 2009, the company introduced the first broad-scale ethnicity markers and created the DNA Fingerprint Plus.

But its innovations didn’t stop there. In October 2012, the company announced the launch of its Rare Genes from History Panel.

Why CoDIS Markers?

“Theoretically,” noted Butler in 2009, “all of the alleles (variations) that exist today for a particular STR locus have resulted from only a few ‘founder’ individuals by slowly changing over tens of thousands of years.”

How true! Hospital studies have determined that the most stable loci (marker addresses on your chromosomes) have values that mutate at a rate of only 0.01%. That means the chance of the value at that location changing from parent to progeny is once every 10,000 generations.

So the autosomal clock of human history ticks at an even slower quantum rate than mitochondrial DNA. Like “mitochondrial Eve,” its patterns were set down in Africa over 100,000 years ago when anatomically modern humans first appeared on the stage of time.

Though the face value of the cards in the deck of human diversity never changed—and all alleles can be traced back to an African origin—as humans left Africa and eventually spread throughout the world, alleles were shuffled and reshuffled. Humanity went through bottlenecks and expansions that emphasized certain alleles over others. Genetic pooling, drift and selection of mates produced regional and country-specific contours much like a geographic map.

“These rare but robust signals of deep history can act as powerful ancestral probes into the tangled past of the human race as well as unique touchstones for the surprising stories of individuals.”

By the twentieth century, when scientists began to assemble the first genetic snapshots of people, it was found that nearly all populations were mixed, some more than others. The geneticist Luigi-Luca Cavalli-Sforza at Stanford University proved that there is almost always more diversity within a population than between populations.

So if there is no such thing as a “pure” population—a control or standard—how are we to make sense of any single individual’s ancestral lines? Statistical analysis provides the answer. And rare genes are easier to trace in the genetic record than common ones. Their distinctive signature stands out.

Back Story:  It All Began with the Melungeons

About the same time as DNA Consultants’ scientists were cracking the mystery of the Melungeons, a tri-racial isolate in the Appalachians, they became aware of certain very rare alleles carried by this unusual population in relatively large doses. The Starnes family, for instance, in Harriman, Tennessee, was observed to have a certain rare score repeated on one location in the profiles of members through three generations. The staff dubbed it “the Starnes gene.”

Soon, company research had characterized 26 rare autosomal ancestry markers—tiny, distinctive threads of inheritance that reflected an origin in Africa and expansion and travels through world history. Genes in this new generation of discoveries were named after some distinctive feature associated with the pattern they created in human genetic history–for instance, the Kilimanjaro Gene after its source in Central East Africa. The Thuya, Akhenaten and King Tut genes were named for the royal family of Egypt whose mummies were investigated by Zahi Hawass’ team in 2010.

The Starnes Gene” became the Helen Gene. Because of its apparent center in Troy in ancient Asia Minor and predilection for settling in island populations, it was named for “the face that launched a thousand ships,” in the famous phrase by Christopher Marlowe.

All 26 of DNA Consultants’ new markers are rare. Not everyone is going to have one. But that’s what makes them interesting, according to Dr. Yates.

Coming from all sections of human diversity—African, Indian, Asian and Native American—they are like tiny gold filaments in a huge, outspread multi-colored tapestry, explains Phyllis Starnes, assistant principal investigator and wife of the namesake of the first discovery. But does that mean that her husband has a connection to Helen of Troy? The markers don’t work on such a literal level, but it does imply that Billy Starnes shares a part of his ancestral heritage with an ancient Greek/Turkish population prominent on the page of history.

Over the past two decades, geneticists have worked out the macro-history and chronology of human migrations in amazing detail and agreement. The Rare Genes from History Panel is another reminder–in the words of an American Indian ceremonial greeting–that “We Are All Related.”

These rare but robust signals of deep history can act as powerful ancestral probes into the tangled past of the human race as well as unique touchstones for the surprising stories of individuals.

For more information about the science of autosomal DNA ancestry testing, visit DNA Consultants or check out its Twitter or Facebook page.

#  #  #


Distribution map of the Egyptian Gene shows its African origin, partial presence in Coptic populations today (green dots in Egypt) and scattered incidence around the world. 

 

For more information: http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/831180-geneticist-traces-mysterious-origins-of-native-americans-to-middle-east-ancient-greece

http://dnaconsultants.com

http://www.donaldyates.com

 

Received 9-23-14 from Mr. Yates

You may be interested to see that Phase II of the Cherokee DNA Study, which Epoch Times and others reported on in the news story Geneticist Traces Mysterious Origins of Native Americans, is being released, with an announcement and an interesting blog Nobody Can Tell Me Who I Am (more to follow).

Muslims In The Americas Before Columbus

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by Dr. Youssef Mrouch

 

by John White and Jim Leslie

 

Originally published in the MES Journal

 

This is a news summary of an internet article discovered by Jim Leslie.  Our previous knowledge of Muslim diffusion was limited to the translations of Arabic inscriptions described in the excellent book Saga America published by Barry Fell in 1980.  The MES also reported Ivan Van Sertima’s findings on West African visitors to the Caribbean in MEJ 20, 2006 and in MENL 25(2), 2008. Some claims are:

 

1. Al-Masudi (871-957 CE) wrote that Khashkhash Ibn Saced Ibn Aswad in 889 CE sailed west from Spain and returned with treasure.

 

2. Al-Guityya wrote that Ibn Farrukh in 999 CE sailed westward from the Canaries and named two islands in the Atlantic before returning.

 

3. Francisco Bobadilla of the Canary Islands put Columbus in chains and returned him to Spain in November 1500 CE.

 

4. Ferdinand Columbus wrote of his father seeing blacks in Honduras, and Dr. Mrouch states that a Muslim tribe known as the Almamy were living there at that time.

 

We also looked for other internet evidence on this subject and found the following:

 

5. Moin Ansari reviewed the book by Abdullah Hakim Quick, Before Columbus: Muslims in the Caribbean published on 9/24/2007.

 

6. The website Muslims in America claims that Columbus wrote he saw a mosque in Cuba on a mountain near Gibara.  Research shows that Martin Alonso Pinzon, captain of ship Pinta, and his brother Vincente Yanex Pinzon, captain of ship Nina, had Muslim heritage.

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