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East Africans & Ancient Navigation

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EAST AFRICANS & ANCIENT NAVIGATION   by Harry Bourne bsooty1@aol.com Why It Could Not Be In a series of papers, this writer has proposed that our ancestors were very much more in touch by sea than is usually accepted by most maritime historians. Doubts about

West Africans & Navigation

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WEST AFRICANS & NAVIGATION by Harry Bourne bsooty1@aol.com   CANOES & NAVIGATION: Oliphantes to Ogowe   This is to be seen as a companion piece for “East Africans & Navigation” that in turn is one of a series of papers discussing aspects of whether Africans

The Isle of Frisland on Zeno Map (1380) is Real!

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Hi Friends– Regarding: the so-called “fantasy isle” of Frisland on the Zeno Map of 1380: Prince Henry Sinclair’s legacy as a New World voyager, savior of 4,000 stranded Greenland farmers, and pirate-fighter has been held hostage by doctrinaire historians who have claimed that the Zeno

Review of : BEFORE COLUMBUS : The New History of Celtic, Egyptian, Phoenician, Viking, Black African And Asian Contacts and Impacts in the Americas Before 1492 By Dr. Samuel D. Marble

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by Jim Leslie, Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Journal BEFORE COLUMBUS, by Dr. Samuel Marble, 1980, A.S. Barnes and Co., Inc., Cranbury, NJ 08512 and Thomas Yoseloff Ltd, Magdalen House, 136-148 Tooley Street, London SE1 2TT, England, ISBN 0-498-02370-2. The subtitle is “The New

Homer, facts or fiction?

Homer_British_Museum

Homer, facts or fiction? By N.R. De Graaf, The Netherlands About the naval base of the Faeakes June 2015         In 1879 mr Cailleux, a Frenchman, advanced the idea that the histories told by Homer had been enacted in the Atlantic zone

Recent Scientific Evidence In Light Of Cyrus Gordon’s Theories Of Semitic Inscriptions in America

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by Zena Halpern Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal, Volume 16 Three sites will be discussed with ancient Semitic inscriptions; two have astronomical evidence validating their authenticity; the three sites are Hidden Mountain in New Mexico, the Bat Creek Stone from Tennessee, and

Two Warrens Researching in South America

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by, Warren W Dexter Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Journal   [Editor’s Note: In MEJ 17(1) we celebrated the distin-guished photographic career of Warren W Dexter. I worked on his writeup first because I had the privelage of visiting with him. His earlier work,

Is Metamora Logo An Ancient Keltic Face ?

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by, John J White, III & Beverley H Moseley, Jr Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Newsletter   Many of the advertisements for the Metamora Museum of Ethnographic Art feature a photograph of the sculptured stone face shown below. The Museum Director Paul J

Bits And Pieces Of EMSL: Part I

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By, John J White, III Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal The author has found so many examples of significant EMSL words that some have become lost for lack of a suitable opportunity for discussion. The most important case is the so called

Ancient Words In Ethel Stewart’s ‘Last King Of The Hsi-Hsia Empire’

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by, John J White, III Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal   The “Last King of the Hsi-Hsia Empire” by Ethel Stewart (previous article) discusses several aspects of Tibetan Buddhism in order to explain the Dene version of this history. There is little

Photograph Of The Famous Kettle Hill ‘Mummy’ – The Beginning of the Robert Goslin Legacy

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by, Beverley H Moseley, Jr. and John J White, III Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal   It is possible to argue that Robert Martin Gosling (1904-1964) was the greatest field archaeologist and naturalist in Ohio History. This self-educated genius from an enlightened

Bird Ogam In Ancient America

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By, John J White, III and Beverley H Moseley, Jr. Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal   Our interests include many aspects of ancient culture and cultural diffusion. We are inclined to report on specific artifacts found in books and museums that are

Bourne Stone Gives Evidence Of Early Atlantic Crossing

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by, John J White, III, Beverley H. Moseley, Jr., and Charles F. Herberger Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal   [Editor’s Note: The visit of Dr. Charles Herberger to the 2001 MES Symposium prompted us to prepare an update of an old epigraphic

European Maps, Chinese Sources

ChineseOrigin

By Chao C. Chien   Originally published at Diogenes Research There is no longer doubt that the Age of Discovery was not brought on by European explorers. But then, if they did not “discover” the world, who did? Of course, as many overly eager revisionist

The Propagation of a Myth

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By Chao C. Chien   Originally published by Diogenes Research.org   In a recent BBC News posting a famous medieval map was once more marveled at. This is the famous 1507 “Map of America” by the German cartographer Waldseemuller (See http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-30840318). The 1507 Waldseemuller World

Ancient Fortresses of the Ohio Valley, Part V: Processed Goods, Packaging and Transportation

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Ancient Fortresses of the Ohio Valley, Part V: Processed Goods, Packaging and Transportation By Rick Osmon Originally published in Ancient American Magazine Issue # 105 When we think of ancient trade by ancient merchants, we usually think in terms of durable goods, that is, things

The Lost Gods and Tablet of Prehistoric Michigan

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By, Henriette Mertz     Originally published in Ancient American Magazine. Reprinted with permission from The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal, Beverley Moseley   The Newberry tablet no longer exists. Found on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, it represented only one of thousands of inscribed artifacts

Calalus 775-900 A.D. : A Re-examination of the Bent Artifacts – PART 2

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By, Cyclone Covey. Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Volume 16   The Latin Texts told–in halting Classical clauses but in more characteristically Medieval handling–of a “kingdom” of Jews who traced their antecedents back to the mighty King Benjamin who had been brought to

Were Prehistoric Copper Oxhide Ingots manufactured on the Mississippi coast near the mouth of the Mississippi River?

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By, Jay S.Wakefield, jswakefield@comcast.net   Copper: According to American Indian oral tradition, Michigan copper was mined in antiquity by “red haired white-skinned ‘marine men’ who came from across the sea”. Tens of thousands of pits, up to 30’ deep, were mined using fire-setting and stone

Black Olmecs Likely Were West Africans

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By John J. White, III Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Journal Volume 16   Reporting and interest in ancient history is rather ethnocentric. The shortage of authors with Black African heritage leads to an understatement of Black African participation in Cultural Diffusion to the

Welcome to Ancient America!

IMG_1086[1]This web site is dedicated to investigating mysteries of history and archaeology, some that arose long before Christopher Columbus sailed west, some that are more recent. A few are current. There are articles by both amateurs and professionals, seasoned researchers and beginners, great writers, and people who simply have something to say. All of them get a voice here. (See contributors’ guide)

You may notice a close similarity to the name of a popular archaeology magazine, Ancient American. We are not that magazine, but we cooperate with it frequently. In fact, many of the writers you encounter here are also contributors to the Ancient American Magazine.

We also report / reprint from interest groups when the discussion brings important points to the table.

Both recent and rare books, other publications, videos, maps, artifacts and reproductions will come up for sale in our eShop.

But, mostly, we provide YOU a place to express your interests and opinions.

East Africans & Ancient Navigation

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EAST AFRICANS & ANCIENT NAVIGATION

 

by Harry Bourne

bsooty1@aol.com

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Why It Could Not Be

In a series of papers, this writer has proposed that our ancestors were very much more in touch by sea than is usually accepted by most maritime historians. Doubts about this lead us into something seen in many other of those other papers, namely opening with the negatives and this is echoed in this article with “Why it Could Not Be” are expressed. To also be borne in mind is that dates are to be expressed here as Before Common Era (= BCE/BC) and later ones as Common Era (= CE/AD), as are the international comparisons.

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West Africans & Navigation

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WEST AFRICANS & NAVIGATION

by Harry Bourne

bsooty1@aol.com

 

CANOES & NAVIGATION: Oliphantes to Ogowe

 

This is to be seen as a companion piece for “East Africans & Navigation” that in turn is one of a series of papers discussing aspects of whether Africans ever went to sea or were too much in terror of it to do so. Ivan Van Sertima (They Came Before Columbus 1976) wrote against the latter opinion when saying Africans were not the “boatless” people they are frequently described as. As many of the other negatives of voyaging around African shores are listed in “East Africans & Navigation”, there is little point in repeating this here.

Otherwise we begin here with the dugout-canoe. Such canoes were scarce relative to other types over most of east Africa. They originate the Before Common Era (= BCE) were still around in Common Era days to be reported by the unknown author of the Periplus Maris Erythraei (= PME). An addition to this 1st c. CE reference would be those that James Hornell (Mariner’s Mirror 1948) thought were exampled in Egypt by scenes in the tomb of Queen Tiye. Long journeys by canoes are put forward as having taken the Polynesian ancestors of the Maoris to New Zealand. More canoe-borne migrants are those from the part of east Africa that is now called Tanganyika getting to Fiji according to Fijian tradition cited on the Balson Holdings site (online).

There is general opinion groups going under the several labels of Khoikhoi, Khwe, San, Khoisan, Queyna, Bushmen, Capoids plus umpteen others did not use boats. More of the same comes with a contributor to the New Advent Encyclopaedia confidently saying the Khwe did not fish. Contrary views are not helped by the faults of “Bushman’s Art” by Erik Holm (1987) being pointed out by John Parkington in the South African journal called “The Digging Stick” (1988). These faults are such that Holm’s book has been withdrawn by the publisher.

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The Isle of Frisland on Zeno Map (1380) is Real!

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Hi Friends–

Regarding: the so-called “fantasy isle” of Frisland on the Zeno Map of 1380:

Prince Henry Sinclair’s legacy as a New World voyager, savior of 4,000 stranded Greenland farmers, and pirate-fighter has been held hostage by doctrinaire historians who have claimed that the Zeno Narrative and Map are “a Venetian-sponsored hoax.” Academic scholars, loyal to their antiquated Padigm, have insisted for eons that a prominent isle on the map, Frisland, “never existed” – except in the fictional musings of Nicolò Zeno (the Younger – a Venetian Senator) in the 16th century. He has been wrongly accused of inventing the “hoax” – although his reconstruction of events from memory did have some significant “lapses.” These difficulties were augmented with a little “literary license,” in places, that resulted in ultimately compromising the integrity of Gian Ramusio’s publication in Viaggi in 1558.

I noticed that three ancient maps (the Zeno 1380, Catalan 1480, and Prunes 1553) all had similar – but not identical – coastlines for Frisland. On the Catalan and Prunes Maps, the title is spelled Fixland – where the “x” was probably pronounced as “sh.” This would yield an English title of “Fish-land.”

Frisland is Real maps

Newfoundland was known as the principal isle of codfish from the 14th century up to modern times. The Portuguese and Basques called the Island bacalaos – which was the Portuguese-Basque word for “codfish.”

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Review of : BEFORE COLUMBUS : The New History of Celtic, Egyptian, Phoenician, Viking, Black African And Asian Contacts and Impacts in the Americas Before 1492 By Dr. Samuel D. Marble

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by Jim Leslie,

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Journal

BEFORE COLUMBUS, by Dr. Samuel Marble, 1980, A.S. Barnes and Co., Inc., Cranbury, NJ 08512 and Thomas Yoseloff Ltd, Magdalen House, 136-148 Tooley Street, London SE1 2TT, England, ISBN 0-498-02370-2. The subtitle is “The New History of Celtic, Egyptian, Phoenician, Viking, Black African, and Asian Contacts and Impacts in the Americas before 1492″. Be sure to read my short bio of Dr. Marble at the end of this article.

A number of “Before Columbus” books have been written since the cultural ice-breaking books by Barry Fell and others in the sixties and seventies. Each surveyed the then known repositories of pre-Columbian evidence and added the evidence privy to the author, plus their opinion and insight on it all. Dr. Marble’s wonderful book is no less than these others but stands out with his extensive knowledge of Celtic and Christian influences in the new world, especially in the Incan society, and some little known but revealing details of the Columbus voyages and influences of the Egyptians and the Vikings.

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Homer, facts or fiction?

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Homer, facts or fiction?

By N.R. De Graaf, The Netherlands

About the naval base of the Faeakedegraffs June 2015

 

 

 

 

In 1879 mr Cailleux, a Frenchman, advanced the idea that the histories told by Homer had been enacted in the Atlantic zone of Europe. This was some decade after Schliemann told the world that he had found Troy at the west coast of Turkey, and substantiated his find with the gold treasures he had dug up. The question is not yet solved, though most archaeologists now believe that Schliemann’s claim is true. It fits the traditional setting since the Roman Empire.

One of the problems is that the scenery quite often does not fit the Aegean Sea or coast, or even the Mediterranean Sea. This was already marked in Antiquity, and Homer sometimes was put away as a fanciful poet, even more so in our days. Instead of bending Homer’s poems to make them fit the traditional interpretation, it might however be interesting to see if Cailleux might point in the right direction.

One way to do this is not only to analyze the verses philologically but also to inspect the topographical indications we find in the texts. These do often not change so strongly as to become unrecognizable, e.g. in the case of springs, characteristics of capes, mountains, islands, landing beaches and harbours, caves and strong, durable, human-built structures. Distances walked and travelled by ship can be characteristic in combination with other topographical and geographical data.

Many people have already sought for Troy and Ithaka, and mostly they found considerable gaps between the descriptions of Homer and the reality found in the field. The indications given by Cailleux however become more interesting the more one goes into detail by visiting the places suggested by Cailleux. I can testify for that.

The most convincing arguments are the characteristics of the sea, often called the Ocean (Ωκεανος) by Homer. It is grey, or greenish like wine, it has (strong) tidal action, it is very, very large, it has strong currents and the routes of the ships when blown by certain winds and driven by the currents are more plausible for the Atlantic, in direction and length. Indeed more so than it is for the Mediterranean. I would call this hypothesis of Cailleux the Atlantic stage of Homer.

To check this Antlantic stage idea, I have visited various places along the European Atlantic coast. The supposed place of Ithaca, near Cadiz, as hypothesized also by Wilkins and Gideon in their books, was not my first choice, being complicated to examine. It will be done next time. Essential in this research is that one has to make a real visit, or various visits, with some expertise in interpretation of satellite images and topographical descriptions, wide interest in archaeology of the Bronze Age and some knowledge of the fallacies of translating the Greek original text of Homer.

Scheria, the island of the Phaeacians, indicated to be Lanzarote (of the Canaries) by Gideon and Wilkins, was a good option. Descriptions of Homer are broad and specific, it seems a fairyland at first look, which if becoming a true location would be quite convincing proof that Homer did not fancy in his poems. This in accordance with his descriptions and observations of human behaviour, which still makes his work marvellous.

Finds on Lanzarote

What I found on Lanzarote was astonishing. Most, or nearly all, details of Homer’s story are found on Lanzarote, starting with the description of far view of the island, when seen by Odysseus on his raft, as a dried raw hide (rhinos) which word traditionally is translated as a shield. But the hide is a better translation for the profile of a high cliff with two truncated volcanic cones on it. There is no real river on Lanzarote, but a salty river is indeed present, El Rio, the strait at the northwest coast of Lanzarote that has a strong current during heavy weather. The isolated bush where Odysseus hides for the nightly cold still has a realistic equivalent, if not it is the same location even after three thousand years, as it depends on a spring. The washbasins like those in which Nausikaa did the laundry with her maidens, still are seen, though dry nowadays. They are newly built or repaired with mortar now. The description of the beach where Odysseus eloquently pleads for help, after having disturbed the ball game of the maidens, the mule cart road over the plain to the capital with its double harbour and its springs uphill from the old city, the descriptions of the harbour and even the orders of Alkinoos the king, to draw the ship for Odysseus’ return out of the harbour in time to avoid low tide problems in the entrance, it all fits remarkably. Also the threats of Poseidon to petrify the returning ship into what is now the lonely Roque d’Este, and to cover the city with a mountain, it all is fitting in the scenery on Lanzarote.

A bold hypothesis was made that the riches of the Phaeacians are due to trade in expensive metals, copper and silver and gold, originating from mines e.g in the actual USA, Michigan. This trade route is quite feasible to do with rowing ships, as proven by daredevils doing the transatlantic crossing from the same Canary islands to the Caribbean. That Homer describes people with transatlantic trade some three thousands of years before present is not a new idea, but that their naval base might be found now is really something to be further checked.

I would invite people interested in my research to mail me to ask for a copy of my report and many photographs about Lanzarote. <emailgraaf4@xs4all.nl>

In due time the mentioned report and also next ones, will be available on my website <www.Homeros-explorations.nl>

Atlantic currents. From: De Grote Bosatlas 49th edition, Noordhoff Uitgevers, Groningen. Low-resolution

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Recent Scientific Evidence In Light Of Cyrus Gordon’s Theories Of Semitic Inscriptions in America

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by Zena Halpern

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal, Volume 16

Three sites will be discussed with ancient Semitic inscriptions; two have astronomical evidence validating their authenticity; the three sites are Hidden Mountain in New Mexico, the Bat Creek Stone from Tennessee, and the Newark, Ohio inscriptions.

Hidden Mountain, New Mexico

The Decalogue Stone

At the base of the mountain is the Decalogue Stone in the old Phoenician/Hebrew/Samaritan script. This huge stone sits in a ravine, at the entrance to a path leading to the top of the mountain. There is a striking similarity to the Samaritan Mezzuzot in which ancient Samaritans placed stone plaques inscribed with an abridged version of the Ten Commandments at the doorways to their dwellings. The Israel Museum has two such stone plaques labeled Samaritan Mezzuzot.

The Astronomical Petroglyph

At the rim of the mountain, is a petroglyph with identifiable constellations; Ursa Minor and Ursa Major, Draco, Virgo, etc. Unique aspects of the petroglyph are a solar eclipse between Virgo and Libra (see sketch) and a circles-dot near the constellation of Draco and Lyra. Dr. Louis Winkler, an astronomer analyzed the petroglyph and stated that the two concentric circles with a dot placed at the north ecliptic pole indicated a knowledge of precession.

Dr. Winkler also analyzed the solar eclipse and stated that the depiction of the solar eclipse from Hidden Mountain, New Mexico took place on Sept. 15, 107 BCE (Gregorian) and was at 5:03 PM Local Standard Time at an elevation of 13 degrees above the horizon. Dr. Winkler’s software (Albug) shows the eclipse in Virgo near Libra. Using the Julian calendar, the eclipse is dated to Sept. 18, 107 BCE which correlates remarkably to the Hebrew calendar date of Elul 28, 3654. Elul 28 is the Hebrew month and day preceding the sacred day of Tishri I and the first day of the seventh month (Leviticus 23:24) later observed as the New Year (Rosh Hashanah). (See table of eclipse dates.)

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The remarkable message depicted on a rock on the rum of Hidden Mountain shows a sophisticated understanding of astronomical data and observation of an event at an auspicious time in the year 107 BCE, which marked the eve of the day of an ancient observance of the Hebrew calendar.

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Two Warrens Researching in South America

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by, Warren W Dexter

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Journal

 

[Editor’s Note: In MEJ 17(1) we celebrated the distin-guished photographic career of Warren W Dexter. I worked on his writeup first because I had the privelage of visiting with him. His earlier work, however, was a team effort with out present honoree Dr Warren L Cook. Despite his ad-vanced age, Mr Dexter was thrilled to contribute this piece remembering their great trip to Ecuador and Peri in 1981. See the article in ESOP 11(2), 216-230 (1983) for Cook’s report (reprinted in this volume). Also, see WW Dexter in ESOP 20, 212-223 (1992).]

 

After considerable discussion and planning, Dr. Warren L. Cook and Warren W. Dexter took off from the Rutland airport in Vermont on the 13th of June 1981. We were headed for Guadaquil, Ecuador in South America, ostensibly to research an ancient artifact collection accumulated by Father Carlo Crespi and a few other sources.

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Arriving late at Guadaquil, we took a taxi to the Humboldt Hotel where we spent a short night. In the morning our breakfast was in the bar where I discovered a large 8 ft. tall phallic stone upon which were growing several orchids. Across the room was a large earthen ceramic jar in which a mummified figure was incarcerated. I thought it was inter-esting use of symbols for the beginning and the end. Thus started our research trip into the remains of the ancient cultures of Ecuador and Peru.

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Is Metamora Logo An Ancient Keltic Face ?

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by, John J White, III & Beverley H Moseley, Jr

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Newsletter

 

Many of the advertisements for the Metamora Museum of Ethnographic Art feature a photograph of the sculptured stone face shown below. The Museum Director Paul J Hendricks represents this artifact conservatively to be American-made colonial art (< 1840), and he displays it after years of collecting as his favorite find. The authors, on the other hand, had no trouble agreeing that there is a significant probability that scientific investigation will conclude that this artifact can be added to the hypothetical Dr Barry Fell collection of ancient Keltic evidence found in North America, especially the New England region.

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Let us explain that the Metamora Museum of Ethnographic Art is a private institution (donations requested) located in the Odd Fellows Hall of Historic Metamora, an 1838 Canal Town {www.metamoraindiana.com} in southeast Indiana. It is operated as a tourist attraction with a canal, railroad train, grist mill, and 50-60 shops selling food, handicrafts, and related domestic products.

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Bits And Pieces Of EMSL: Part I

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By, John J White, III

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal

The author has found so many examples of significant EMSL words that some have become lost for lack of a suitable opportunity for discussion. The most important case is the so called “orphan”, an additional example that should have been explained in a previously published paper.

You may know that Central Asia has a second great desert comparable with the ‘Gobi’. This desert is called the ‘Takla Makan’, and it surrounds the Tarim Basin in western China. The name probably means The-Kala-Mighty-People or The-Mighty-Kali-People in EMSL. This name honors the great Indian Earth Mother “Kali-Ma”. The Chinese discriminate against the Central Asians, and one of the reasons may be the occurrence of brown skin. The successful Neolithic era in India led to the export of many brown-skinned people (Caucasian/Dravidian mixture). Also, western India was Buddhist around the time of Christ, leading to the spread of Buddhism to the Silk Road via the Khyber Pass. If you look at photographs of 19th century Apache Indian people, you will dark-skinned Caucasians with only 10% Chinese heritage. These are Dene people, Silk Road guardian soldiers from the Tarim Basir., who came to America to escape Chinghis Khan in 1233 CE (Ethel Stewart).

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Ancient Words In Ethel Stewart’s ‘Last King Of The Hsi-Hsia Empire’

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by, John J White, III

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal

 

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The “Last King of the Hsi-Hsia Empire” by Ethel Stewart (previous article) discusses several aspects of Tibetan Buddhism in order to explain the Dene version of this history. There is little unity in this current piece. It is simply a chance to point out that Medieval Asian history retained many names that were ancient and EMSL-like. The near universal occurrence of EMSL names came to an end in Asia with the development of modern Chinese culture that has a new name for most peoples and locations.

My current view of Tibetan Buddhism is that it emerged ca 500 BCE as an attempt to add new ideas to a combination of Hinduism + Sun/Light religion. We can find remnants of this new religion in Native American culture, but it is often quite dilute and modified by genuine American ideas. The principal mechanism for such change was the requirement to give up many remnants of Neolithic/Copper Age culture in favor of the Paleolithic/Neolithic culture adopted for American survival. And we surely understand that this older culture was the Earth Mother Culture (EMC) that we have investigated thoroughly.

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