by Carl A. Bjork. Originally published in Ancient American Magazine Issue #45 Southern California’s “Painted Rock” is among the relatively few surviving examples of ancient pictoglyphs created by the Chumash people before their extinction through contact with diseases contracted in the early 17th
Written by Tom Anderton. Originally published in Ancient American magazine issue #83. A rock shelter near Van, Pennsylvania known as “Rainbow Rock” features the carvings of snakes, a human figure, apparent bird tracks and dots, as described by The Pennsylvania Archaeologist (Vol. 42, No.
CATHERINE ACHOLONU, DIRECTOR – CATHERINE ACHOLONU RESEARCH CENTER, ABUJA (www.carcafriculture.org) SUMMARY: Osiris was a universal god known all over the world by different names. He was the first Christ long before the days of Jesus and Chrisna. His equivalent entity in India was Rama.
My article to the French organization and mining engineer and philosopher, Dominiqule Tassot is attached. Some minor additions are in red and an important epilogue I wrote 3/12/14 are in green. www.dinosaurc14ages.com by Hugh Miller Reflections on Oral and Poster Presentations of Percent of Modern
Rare Genes from History Revisited by, Donald Yates Check Out DNA Fingerprint Plus $300 It’s been a year and a half since DNA Consultants introduced Rare Genes from History. We republish here the original press release from October 2012 as a means of familiarizing new and old customers
by Dr. Youssef Mrouch by John White and Jim Leslie Originally published in the MES Journal This is a news summary of an internet article discovered by Jim Leslie. Our previous knowledge of Muslim diffusion was limited to the translations of Arabic
by, Myron Paine, Ph.D. http://lenape-epic.blogspot.com/ SEE THE LENAPE FIRST CONCLUSIONS NORSE CATHOLICS have been in America for 1,000 years. Myron Paine has devoted 14 years of research to Norse Catholics in America. He started by making a hypothesis: During the Little
by Warren W. Dexter, FES, DFFMES, Elkhart, Indiana Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Journal, Volume 17, Number 1, 2003 HODO or DOLMEN Just west of the WRITING ON STONE PROVINCIAL PARK in southern Alberta, Canada is located a wonderfully positioned DOLMEN appearing
by Cyclone Covey, DFMES, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, N.C. Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Journal, Volume 20, 2006. Comments on: Lawrence F. Athy, “Foreign Influences on the Priesthood & Nobility of Precolumbian America,” ESOP XVII (1983), 106-120 & “Beards in North America
by Cyclone Covey, Ph.D. Originally published in Ancient American Magazine March/April 1994. In the 1830’s, soon after the forced removal of aboriginal tribes into Indian Territory, Chocktaw hunters roaming vast, vacant, forested hills came upon the mammoth runestone in an idyllic vale of
by Joseph B. Mahan, Executive Director, Westville Village, Lumpkin, Georgia Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal [Editor’s Note: The first Westville Symposium, the parent of ISAC, was held in 1972. The Dr. Joseph Mahan, DFMES story can be found documented in
by Rick Hurd, “*REVELATION. The Angel of the Lord came unto me, James, on the first day of September, in the year eighteen hundred and fortyfive, and the light Shined about him above the brightness of the sun, and he showed unto me the plates of the sealed
by, John J White, III, Beverley H. Moseley, Jr, and Cyclone Covey Originally published in the Midwestern Epigraphic Society Newsletter, Volume 18, Number 2. A leading objective of the MES founders was the reporting of new information and interpretations that would lead to a
Originally published in Ancient American magazine. by Ross Hamilton Long ago in central North America, there was a great civil war. It was a war owning many battles, and had an incredible loss of life. It wasn’t the North versus the South, although it sponsored
First published in Ancient American magazine and later in Nexus magazine. by Ross Hamilton Noted Native American author and professor of law emeritus, Vine Deloria, writes in a personal communication: It’s probably better that so few of the ruins and remains were tied in
by, Jim Burchell John Young of London, Kentucky found this pipe under a rock shelter in Clay County, Kentucky. He brought it to me for examination. The pipe was broken but I was able to piece it together and trace the writings that were on
by Richard D. Moats Overview: The Salisbury brothers authored a paper in 1862 describing several sites in Ohio. One of the sites they described was an “Ancient Symbolic Earth Works” in Northern Perry County. The paper included a narrative and plot map of a
The third chapter of Donald Yates’ history of the Cherokee (Old World Roots of the Cherokee, McFarland 2012) contains the genetic story of the Cherokee Indians based on DNA Consultants’ 2009 study “Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA in the Cherokee,” but it is no easy read, being written for an
by, Warren W. Dexter Originally published in Ancient American Magazine – Issue #54. An unusual site is located just West of Writing on Stone Provencal Park, in Alberta. There, the Milk River starts at the eastern edge of Glacier National Park, in
home.comcast.net/~carlbjork By Carl A. Bjork If we are to debate or discuss, or to develop a general theory about the symbols and possible semiotic relationships found at rock art sites, we must delineate and set boundaries on the definition or meaning of
This web site is dedicated to investigating mysteries of history and archaeology, some that arose long before Christopher Columbus sailed west, some that are more recent. A few are current. There are articles by both amateurs and professionals, seasoned researchers and beginners, great writers, and people who simply have something to say. All of them get a voice here. (See contributors’ guide)
You may notice a close similarity to the name of a popular archaeology magazine, Ancient American. We are not that magazine, but we cooperate with it frequently. In fact, many of the writers you encounter here are also contributors to the Ancient American Magazine.
We also report / reprint from interest groups when the discussion brings important points to the table.
Both recent and rare books, other publications, videos, maps, artifacts and reproductions will come up for sale in our eShop.
But, mostly, we provide YOU a place to express your interests and opinions.
by Carl A. Bjork.
Originally published in Ancient American Magazine Issue #45
Southern California’s “Painted Rock” is among the relatively few surviving examples of ancient pictoglyphs created by the Chumash people before their extinction through contact with diseases contracted in the early 17th Century. Respected even by the rapacious Spaniards as “civilized Indians,” the Chumash were physically set apart from other Native Americans by their facial hair (most Indians were beardless) and occasionally fair complexions. They were also skilled mariners, and sailed tomols, or well-made boats somewhat resembling Viking ship-building practices, up and down the Pacific coast, even venturing as far as the off-shore islands of San Miguel and St. Nicholas.
Written by Tom Anderton.
Originally published in Ancient American magazine issue #83.
A rock shelter near Van, Pennsylvania known as “Rainbow Rock” features the carvings of snakes, a human figure, apparent bird tracks and dots, as described by The Pennsylvania Archaeologist (Vol. 42, No. 3, September 1972). While these images are common visual components of petroglyphs found across North America, the elephant depicted inside a rectangle on the face of a large stone standing near “Rainbow Rock” is not.
James L. Swauger, an expert in prehistoric rock art with more than seventy published reports dealing primarily with petroglyphs in the Ohio Valley, examined the elephant portrayal. “It is obvious at this time that the figure was carved recently by persons using metal tools, and that it has no relationship to the undoubted American Indian petroglyphs of the site,” he concluded in “The Bunola Head, A Forgery”, for The Pennsylvania Archeologist, Vol. 30, No. 2, Gettysburg. “Leo T. Sarnaki Carnegie Museum Photographer, concurred in this opinion, as did the half dozen others with whom I visited this site.”
CATHERINE ACHOLONU, DIRECTOR – CATHERINE ACHOLONU RESEARCH CENTER, ABUJA (www.carcafriculture.org)
Osiris was a universal god known all over the world by different names. He was the first Christ long before the days of Jesus and Chrisna. His equivalent entity in India was Rama. He lived in Atlantis as its first priest-king. Filial rivalry caused him to leave Atlantis even before it fell and relocate to West Africa, a nearby land. There he build a city among the native Igbo cave-men and settled among them in anonymity and peace. But it was not to last because soon his fame reached world-wide and trouble came calling. Atlantis fell but Osiris, whom the native Igbo forest people called Eshi (from the root of the word Sirius), recorded the knowledge of Atlantis on stone and hid them (365 of them) in forests of ancient Nigeria. Edgar Cayce’s Readings confirm this. Osiris also left writings on bronze and copper, which were excavated in the 1950s by a young British archaeologist, called Thurstan Shaw. The goods found there would have filled an entire museum, yet it was not even a piece of the ice berg. A monarch’s grave was found who wore a regalia beaded with a whooping 111,000 coloured carnelian (glass) beads, a crescent copper crown with lozenge and zigzag cuttings, a copper breast-plate, beaded armbands, anklets made of rows of copper spirals. This was certainly no ordinary mortal, nor was Igbo Ukwu an ordinary civilization, but one of international ramifications, which must be sought in mythology and world History books. We therefore began the process of analysing the finds and the emblems in order to figure out whether Igbo Ukwu could well be that Pre-historic city which Osiris was reputed to have built in the Forest in the days of the Deluge – It was. Igbo Ukwu was in fact ancient Heliopolis, the capital of mythological Egypt otherwise known as Punt/Panchea.
The term Negro is derived from an ancient word Nagas, designating the most ancient Black race that populated the continents of Africa and, originally, also of Atlantis, who, according to legend, migrated from a sunken continent which in ancient records was known as Mu or Lemuria. Nagas are called the Lords of Fire and their symbol is the serpent or the fire-spitting serpent, otherwise called the dragon. In the ancient Tibetan epic story of the Birth of the Universe – Stanzas of Dzyan the “The Sons of Fire” are called “the Instructors” of the Sons of God and their emblem is “the Dragon of Wisdom”- the Mother whose nature is the spiraling whirlwind – the Swastika. Stanzas 11-12 of this timeless Tibetan epic hidden in the ancient caverns of the Himalayas, translated in part by Helen Blavatsky (The Secret Doctrine), speaks about “the First Great Waters” before the Deluge of Noah:
My article to the French organization and mining engineer and philosopher, Dominiqule Tassot is attached. Some minor additions are in red and an important epilogue I wrote 3/12/14 are in green. www.dinosaurc14ages.com
by Hugh Miller
Reflections on Oral and Poster Presentations of Percent of Modern C-14 (pmC) Content Studies of Dinosaur Bones given at the AOGS-AGU Singapore Conference – Offers support for the Abrupt Appearance Theory of Life origins and demonstrates predictive and reproducibility quality of the data for said theory.
Introduction: On 9 April, 2012, all 10 coauthors were pleasantly surprised to receive an e-mail letter accepting our abstract on C-14 dating of dinosaur bones from the Asia Oceania Geoscience Society (AOGS). This was our sixth submission to as many conventions or regional conferences of geological or paleontological societies, so we were naturally delighted even though we were only awarded a poster session at the Singapore conference. In Singapore we were assigned to the Biogeoscience section BGO2-A012 and later Dr. Thomas Seiler of Germany was also allowed to give an oral presentation as there was an opening but none of our Ph.D. co-authors was available. The AOGS letter of acceptance with the title, abstract and list of authors from Europe and the United States reads as follows:
Congratulations! Your abstract has been accepted for presentation at the AOGS – AGU (WPGM) Joint Assembly 2012 taking place from 13 to 17 August, 2012 at the Resorts World Sentosa in Singapore. The review report is as shown. This and other meeting details – your presentation schedule, meeting registration, invoice, receipts, etc will be posted as they become available on your personal page on MARS.
BG02-A012 A COMPARISON OF δ13C & pMC VALUES for TEN CRETACEOUS-JURASSIC DINOSAUR BONES from TEXAS to ALASKA USA, CHINA AND EUROPE [Note: pMC is percent of modern C-14]
Hugh MILLER, Hugh OWEN, Robert BENNETT, Jean DE PONTCHARRA, Maciej GIERTYCH, Joe TAYLOR, Marie Claire VAN OOSTERWYCH, Otis KLINE, Doug WILDER, Beatrice DUNKEL
|Check Out DNA Fingerprint Plus $300|
It’s been a year and a half since DNA Consultants introduced Rare Genes from History. We republish here the original press release from October 2012 as a means of familiarizing new and old customers with this unique autosomal marker test, exclusive to our company. Purchase now for only $149 ($134.10 with your customer discount).
For descriptions of all 26 Rare Genes from History, visit the product page.
If you have received your Rare Genes from History results, we encourage you to discuss them with others in the free forums at DNA Communities. How many did you get? Were they European, Native American, African or Asian? Do you think you got a given rare gene from your mother or father? From both?
Rare Genes from History: DNA Consultants’ Next-Generation Ancestry Markers
PHOENIX — (Oct. 1, 2012) — DNA typing has gone from successes in the criminal justice system and paternity testing to new heights in mapping genetic diseases and tracing human history. John Butler in the conclusion to his textbook Fundamentals of Forensic DNA Typing raised an important question about these trends. How might genetic genealogy information intersect with forensic DNA testing in the future?
“At DNA Consultants, that new chapter in DNA testing arrived several years ago,” said Donald Yates, chief research officer and founder. “As we approach our tenth anniversary, examining human population diversity continues to be the whole thrust of our research, and it just gets more and more exciting.”
The company’s DNA database atDNA 4.0 captures and puts to use every single published academic study on forensic STR markers, the standard CoDIS markers used in DNA profiles for paternity and personal identification. In 2009, the company introduced the first broad-scale ethnicity markers and created the DNA Fingerprint Plus.
But its innovations didn’t stop there. In October 2012, the company announced the launch of its Rare Genes from History Panel.
Why CoDIS Markers?
“Theoretically,” noted Butler in 2009, “all of the alleles (variations) that exist today for a particular STR locus have resulted from only a few ‘founder’ individuals by slowly changing over tens of thousands of years.”
How true! Hospital studies have determined that the most stable loci (marker addresses on your chromosomes) have values that mutate at a rate of only 0.01%. That means the chance of the value at that location changing from parent to progeny is once every 10,000 generations.
So the autosomal clock of human history ticks at an even slower quantum rate than mitochondrial DNA. Like “mitochondrial Eve,” its patterns were set down in Africa over 100,000 years ago when anatomically modern humans first appeared on the stage of time.
Though the face value of the cards in the deck of human diversity never changed—and all alleles can be traced back to an African origin—as humans left Africa and eventually spread throughout the world, alleles were shuffled and reshuffled. Humanity went through bottlenecks and expansions that emphasized certain alleles over others. Genetic pooling, drift and selection of mates produced regional and country-specific contours much like a geographic map.
“These rare but robust signals of deep history can act as powerful ancestral probes into the tangled past of the human race as well as unique touchstones for the surprising stories of individuals.”
By the twentieth century, when scientists began to assemble the first genetic snapshots of people, it was found that nearly all populations were mixed, some more than others. The geneticist Luigi-Luca Cavalli-Sforza at Stanford University proved that there is almost always more diversity within a population than between populations.
So if there is no such thing as a “pure” population—a control or standard—how are we to make sense of any single individual’s ancestral lines? Statistical analysis provides the answer. And rare genes are easier to trace in the genetic record than common ones. Their distinctive signature stands out.
Back Story: It All Began with the Melungeons
About the same time as DNA Consultants’ scientists were cracking the mystery of the Melungeons, a tri-racial isolate in the Appalachians, they became aware of certain very rare alleles carried by this unusual population in relatively large doses. The Starnes family, for instance, in Harriman, Tennessee, was observed to have a certain rare score repeated on one location in the profiles of members through three generations. The staff dubbed it “the Starnes gene.”
Soon, company research had characterized 26 rare autosomal ancestry markers—tiny, distinctive threads of inheritance that reflected an origin in Africa and expansion and travels through world history. Genes in this new generation of discoveries were named after some distinctive feature associated with the pattern they created in human genetic history–for instance, the Kilimanjaro Gene after its source in Central East Africa. The Thuya, Akhenaten and King Tut genes were named for the royal family of Egypt whose mummies were investigated by Zahi Hawass’ team in 2010.
The Starnes Gene” became the Helen Gene. Because of its apparent center in Troy in ancient Asia Minor and predilection for settling in island populations, it was named for “the face that launched a thousand ships,” in the famous phrase by Christopher Marlowe.
All 26 of DNA Consultants’ new markers are rare. Not everyone is going to have one. But that’s what makes them interesting, according to Dr. Yates.
Coming from all sections of human diversity—African, Indian, Asian and Native American—they are like tiny gold filaments in a huge, outspread multi-colored tapestry, explains Phyllis Starnes, assistant principal investigator and wife of the namesake of the first discovery. But does that mean that her husband has a connection to Helen of Troy? The markers don’t work on such a literal level, but it does imply that Billy Starnes shares a part of his ancestral heritage with an ancient Greek/Turkish population prominent on the page of history.
Over the past two decades, geneticists have worked out the macro-history and chronology of human migrations in amazing detail and agreement. The Rare Genes from History Panel is another reminder–in the words of an American Indian ceremonial greeting–that “We Are All Related.”
These rare but robust signals of deep history can act as powerful ancestral probes into the tangled past of the human race as well as unique touchstones for the surprising stories of individuals.
Distribution map of the Egyptian Gene shows its African origin, partial presence in Coptic populations today (green dots in Egypt) and scattered incidence around the world.
Received 9-23-14 from Mr. Yates
You may be interested to see that Phase II of the Cherokee DNA Study, which Epoch Times and others reported on in the news story Geneticist Traces Mysterious Origins of Native Americans, is being released, with an announcement and an interesting blog Nobody Can Tell Me Who I Am (more to follow).
by Dr. Youssef Mrouch
by John White and Jim Leslie
Originally published in the MES Journal
This is a news summary of an internet article discovered by Jim Leslie. Our previous knowledge of Muslim diffusion was limited to the translations of Arabic inscriptions described in the excellent book Saga America published by Barry Fell in 1980. The MES also reported Ivan Van Sertima’s findings on West African visitors to the Caribbean in MEJ 20, 2006 and in MENL 25(2), 2008. Some claims are:
1. Al-Masudi (871-957 CE) wrote that Khashkhash Ibn Saced Ibn Aswad in 889 CE sailed west from Spain and returned with treasure.
2. Al-Guityya wrote that Ibn Farrukh in 999 CE sailed westward from the Canaries and named two islands in the Atlantic before returning.
3. Francisco Bobadilla of the Canary Islands put Columbus in chains and returned him to Spain in November 1500 CE.
4. Ferdinand Columbus wrote of his father seeing blacks in Honduras, and Dr. Mrouch states that a Muslim tribe known as the Almamy were living there at that time.
We also looked for other internet evidence on this subject and found the following:
5. Moin Ansari reviewed the book by Abdullah Hakim Quick, Before Columbus: Muslims in the Caribbean published on 9/24/2007.
6. The website Muslims in America claims that Columbus wrote he saw a mosque in Cuba on a mountain near Gibara. Research shows that Martin Alonso Pinzon, captain of ship Pinta, and his brother Vincente Yanex Pinzon, captain of ship Nina, had Muslim heritage.
by Warren W. Dexter, FES, DFFMES, Elkhart, Indiana
Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Journal, Volume 17, Number 1, 2003
HODO or DOLMEN
Just west of the WRITING ON STONE PROVINCIAL PARK in southern Alberta, Canada is located a wonderfully positioned DOLMEN appearing like a lighthouse that can be observed for miles. It is high above the Milk River, named in 1805 by the Lewis and Clark expedition as they were passing up the Missouri River where the Milk River enters because of the coloring of the Milk River with sand sediment.
The DOLMEN was originally a HODO made into DOLMEN by fracturing a hole in the center of the base by humans. This can be observed from the up-stream side and shows that it is not an opening made from erosion. At the same time at the level just to the left we see what looks like three pillars. This is a carved form instead of an inscribed form of the name (B-L) of the ancient god BAAL in the ancient alphabet (vowelless) OGAM. There are only two places that I have found the name of the God BAAL in this alphabet engraved as on this Pillar (bar relief), the other being on Etruscan burial hut urns in western Italy.
This is one of the two reasons that I assume that this DOLMEN was purposely made as a memorial to the Canaanite God BAAL. The second reason is on a site about ten miles up stream on the Milk River, 65 ft. high above the river on a bluff stands the so-called OGAM PILLAR with two sculptured heads.
The Ogam Pillar site is located about 15 miles east of the town of Milk River in southern Alberta, Canada. It is on a bluff 65 feet above the MIlk River which arises on the eastern border of Glacier National Park in the state of Montana and flows north across the Canadian border then parallel to the border and reenters the United States to join the Missouri River in eastern Montana. It is 625 miles long.
This site has several different stories, and they are in TWO different forms. One is the ancient OGAM (vowelless) inscribed alphabet that tells the story of the flyway of the birds which is the philosophy of the ancient 6 to 4th century BC priests of the Etruscans of western Italy. This pillar is located on the flyway of the birds going north to their breeding grounds. “When the birds fly to the west of the pillar the omen is for wars and famines, but when the birds fly east of the pillar the omen is for good weather and huge crops.”
The second is in the form of sculpture. There are two (2) HEADS sculptured in different forms to portray not only different individuals but their cultures, and by positioning them one above the other showing their position of command. The head above the OGAM inscription is that of a person who looks like a Roman because of the large nose which the Romans inherited from the Etruscans, their predecessors in Italy. The second head at the extreme left is that of an African negro-type who quite possibly was the leader of the sailors who brought the expedition to this destination.
Vandals disfigured the head on top of the OGAM PILLAR so that when I photographed it on my return trip in 1998 it was unrecognizable. It seems that the local establishment and Indians want only their interpretation of history to be considered. They have even tried to exclude any further photography of sites in this area.
The two people in the photograph are (l-r) Ronald Bair and Lawrence Halmrest, local explorers from southern Alberta. The latter was my guide to this location. Sometime previously the Glenbow Museum & Archives in Calgary, Alberta hired three supposed specialists to evaluate the inscriptions along the Milk River which they did and wrote reports about their finds. It so happened that the two most important sites, the “DOLMEN” and the “OGAM PILLAR” were ignored.
by Cyclone Covey, DFMES, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, N.C.
Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Journal, Volume 20, 2006.
Comments on: Lawrence F. Athy, “Foreign Influences on the Priesthood & Nobility of Precolumbian America,” ESOP XVII (1983), 106-120 & “Beards in North America Before Columbus,” XIX (1990), 169-175.
THESE SEMINAL ARTICLES did not receive proper deliberation during the lifetime of Larry Athy, a deeply thoughtful genleman best known as one of the world’s 3 leading authorities on Comalcalco (with Neil Steede & Frank Reynolds) who declared Comalcalco not the most spectacular bust most important precolumbian site. Whether so, its inscribed bricks in many languages besides Mayan confirmed foreign influences. He notably demonstrated (at the 1988 ISAC Conference) a startling parallel of Aegean and precolumbian Mexican art, apparently confirming Olmec beards transatlantic. As a native of Ponca City, Okla. he knew Indians had virtually no facial hair, so conjectured goateed Olmec aristocrats including shamans Europoid.
Though the Mexican government decreed all precolumbian Mexican art & artifacts indigenous, Athy knew that evolution did not start at a height, conjecturing already-full-blown Olmec could have resulted from 100 men in 4 ships but probably many more men and ships visiting Veracruz and departing without establishing colonies or trade-after native women favored them, thus Caucasoid and Negroid descendants. Native Indian women, we know from Spanish colonial experience, preferred Black husbands because they treated women better. Athy neglected to note that the famous gigantic Negro Olmec heads beardless, thus Blacks unlikely co-responsible for Olmec beards.
Expressly discounting an Asian source, extrapolating from Indians of his acquaintance, he seemed unaware that while Chinese were not typically bearded, there were bearded Chinese immemorially, especially savants, shamans, and emperors. Neither did beards typify Mongols. Yet Mongol emperors also had beards, including Yuan & Ming dynasties. Genghis Khan was described bearded. Olmec sculptures indicate beards, however, as uncommon in Mexico as in China and Mongolia. The Shang empire stretched a thousand miles all the way to Gansu encompassing half-Caucasoid Turks and Caucasoid Tocharians (Scythian/Sogdian Indo-Iranian & Italo-Celtic Yuchis), whereas Asians migrating to America in remote antiquity who sired the uniform population of medieval and modern Mexico evidently hailed from coastal South China.
by Cyclone Covey, Ph.D.
Originally published in Ancient American Magazine March/April 1994.
In the 1830’s, soon after the forced removal of aboriginal tribes into Indian Territory, Chocktaw hunters roaming vast, vacant, forested hills came upon the mammoth runestone in an idyllic vale of Poteau, Mt. It had stood immemorially hidden in its remote ravine. Gloria Farley first hiked to it in 1928 when no path yet led the two miles uphill from her home town, Heavener, Oklahoma. A precocious little girl, she realized c.1930 that the large characters carved on “Indian Rock” were runes; but not until 1951, on moving back to Heavener from Ohio, did she clear away the gray lichen and begin serious study of this “billboard” (her word). She measured the protective semicircle of overhanging cliffs at 40′ high. The huge stone below was an upright gray slab of very hard, fine-grained Pennsylvania Savanna sandstone 12′ high, 10′ wide, and 16″ thick. Geologists told her it once projected the cliff above and fell to its present position in a primeval time. The large runes, 6 1/2 to 9 1/2″ high, stretch horizontally nearly two yards (69″) across the west face 3/4 to 1″ wide. Tool marks, 1/4 to 3/16″ deep, were detectable but the sharp-chiseled edges had weather-rounded despite the natural shelter (Westville Symposium Papers #17).