Archive for Phoenicians

Bourne Stone Gives Evidence Of Early Atlantic Crossing

by, John J White, III, Beverley H. Moseley, Jr., and Charles F. Herberger

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal

 

[Editor’s Note: The visit of Dr. Charles Herberger to the 2001 MES Symposium prompted us to prepare an update of an old epigraphic diffusion report. It is amazing that this brief message has an aura of legitimacy, whereas many large sites with 100+ letters are denounced as frauds by alleged experts.]

Like it or not, the colonial settlers of America were confronted with traces of cultural diffusion from the very beginning. The topics included Black Indians, Moslem crescent ornaments, Welsh-speaking Indians, Melungeons (Moroscos from Spain), Indians with caucasian appearances, religious elements similar to Christianity, legends that sounded like they had influences from prior Atlantic explorers, and numerous Native American words that appeared to be borrowings from Europe and Africa. Later scattered artifacts and inscriptions were found, and the steady influx of peoples from historical Asia was detected. Few people will calm that any small number of these observations is conclusive, but the large quantity of such suggestive findings leaves little doubt that our ancestors have been traveling about the world from long before the detectable history of mankind right down to present times.

One of the first inscriptions noted and interpreted was the so-called Bourne Stone of western Cape Cod, whose lettering suggests that Carthaginian-type people writing with the Ibero-Punic script may have reached the New England coast as early as 475 BCE. This Whittall-Fell collaboration was well accepted and occurred during the Golden Age of Barry Fell research. Later, people with inferior translation abilities began to realize the limitations of real-world epigraphy and voiced the obvious conclusion that many interpretations of ancient writing were dubious and certain circumstances possibly manipulated. The inscriptions are nevertheless significant artifacts!

The Cape Cod boundary with greater Massachusetts was defined roughly by Great Herring Pond and the connecting river called the Manumet that flows southward into the north end of Buzzards Bay. The Cape Cod Canal is the practical boundary today. The inscription find area is on the east (Cape Cod) side of the river, although there is speculation that it could have been transported from a site on Great Herring Pond. The local name has changed from Komassakumkanit to Bournedale to Bourne. There is good reason to think the so-called Bourne Stone was recognized as a curious inscription during the 1658-1676 CE era when it was used as a church doorstep. There is confidence that fraudmakers were far less prevalent during this era.

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Poverty Point, The Manufacturing of Copper Oxhides for the Atlantic Copper Trade

Bronze Age Town & Gulf Ports on the Copper Trail

Open-fire manufacturing of Copper Oxhides

(NE Louisiana, & Mississippi c.2000-700 BC)

 

J.S. Wakefield, jayswakefield@yahoo.com

 

Photos coming soon, apologies from AA staff.

 

Summary

The “Late Archaic” Poverty Point earthworks in Louisiana are the earliest and largest monuments in prehistoric North America. The site that remains covers a square mile, features six concentric segmented semi-circular walls, surrounded by six large mounds. The site is shown to be a prehistoric town, and a manufacturing and trading center which was a part of the worldwide megalithic culture. The site design reveals encoded latitudes of transatlantic sailing routes, and evidence of multicultural involvement in the manufacturing of copper oxhide ingots.

 

Introduction & Dating

The Poverty Point complex is a Louisiana State Commemorative Area, open to the public, and has been a National Historical Landmark since 1962. Collectors have been picking up artifacts since the 1870’s, but it was not recognized as such a huge site until the ring pattern was recognized in a 1938 aerial photograph (Fig.2, right). The American Museum of Natural History dug at the site in 1942/3 and 1955, and showed “how large and unusual [the site] was” (Ref.1). Today, there is a road built through the rings, and 15,000 visitors a year pass through the site’s museum. Some of the illustrations used in this article are from the book (The Ancient Mounds of Poverty Point, Place of the Rings) and website of John L. Gibson, previously employed as the site archaeologist, who devoted his career to the study of Poverty Point.

 

The site is located in the northeastern corner of Louisiana, northwest of Vicksburg, Mississippi at 33°N (Fig.1). Poverty Point is built on Maçon Ridge, a plateau 90 miles long, and five miles wide, in the swampy floodplains of the Mississippi River. Gibson reports 38 radiocarbon dates, all between 2278 BC (2470-2040) and 650 BC, with most between 1500 and 1300 BC. Gibson says that while the land and waters were biologically rich, the richest asset was the location. “This was one of the few places in the entire Mississippi valley where a departing pirogue could have been paddled without portages”(Refs.1,2).

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