Archive for Peru

East Africans & Ancient Navigation



by Harry Bourne

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Why It Could Not Be

In a series of papers, this writer has proposed that our ancestors were very much more in touch by sea than is usually accepted by most maritime historians. Doubts about this lead us into something seen in many other of those other papers, namely opening with the negatives and this is echoed in this article with “Why it Could Not Be” are expressed. To also be borne in mind is that dates are to be expressed here as Before Common Era (= BCE/BC) and later ones as Common Era (= CE/AD), as are the international comparisons.

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Review of : BEFORE COLUMBUS : The New History of Celtic, Egyptian, Phoenician, Viking, Black African And Asian Contacts and Impacts in the Americas Before 1492 By Dr. Samuel D. Marble

by Jim Leslie,

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Journal

BEFORE COLUMBUS, by Dr. Samuel Marble, 1980, A.S. Barnes and Co., Inc., Cranbury, NJ 08512 and Thomas Yoseloff Ltd, Magdalen House, 136-148 Tooley Street, London SE1 2TT, England, ISBN 0-498-02370-2. The subtitle is “The New History of Celtic, Egyptian, Phoenician, Viking, Black African, and Asian Contacts and Impacts in the Americas before 1492”. Be sure to read my short bio of Dr. Marble at the end of this article.

A number of “Before Columbus” books have been written since the cultural ice-breaking books by Barry Fell and others in the sixties and seventies. Each surveyed the then known repositories of pre-Columbian evidence and added the evidence privy to the author, plus their opinion and insight on it all. Dr. Marble’s wonderful book is no less than these others but stands out with his extensive knowledge of Celtic and Christian influences in the new world, especially in the Incan society, and some little known but revealing details of the Columbus voyages and influences of the Egyptians and the Vikings.


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Two Warrens Researching in South America

by, Warren W Dexter

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Journal


[Editor’s Note: In MEJ 17(1) we celebrated the distin-guished photographic career of Warren W Dexter. I worked on his writeup first because I had the privelage of visiting with him. His earlier work, however, was a team effort with out present honoree Dr Warren L Cook. Despite his ad-vanced age, Mr Dexter was thrilled to contribute this piece remembering their great trip to Ecuador and Peri in 1981. See the article in ESOP 11(2), 216-230 (1983) for Cook’s report (reprinted in this volume). Also, see WW Dexter in ESOP 20, 212-223 (1992).]


After considerable discussion and planning, Dr. Warren L. Cook and Warren W. Dexter took off from the Rutland airport in Vermont on the 13th of June 1981. We were headed for Guadaquil, Ecuador in South America, ostensibly to research an ancient artifact collection accumulated by Father Carlo Crespi and a few other sources.

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Arriving late at Guadaquil, we took a taxi to the Humboldt Hotel where we spent a short night. In the morning our breakfast was in the bar where I discovered a large 8 ft. tall phallic stone upon which were growing several orchids. Across the room was a large earthen ceramic jar in which a mummified figure was incarcerated. I thought it was inter-esting use of symbols for the beginning and the end. Thus started our research trip into the remains of the ancient cultures of Ecuador and Peru.

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