Archive for Native Americans

Ancient Words In Ethel Stewart’s ‘Last King Of The Hsi-Hsia Empire’

by, John J White, III

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal

 

ethelstewart

The “Last King of the Hsi-Hsia Empire” by Ethel Stewart (previous article) discusses several aspects of Tibetan Buddhism in order to explain the Dene version of this history. There is little unity in this current piece. It is simply a chance to point out that Medieval Asian history retained many names that were ancient and EMSL-like. The near universal occurrence of EMSL names came to an end in Asia with the development of modern Chinese culture that has a new name for most peoples and locations.

My current view of Tibetan Buddhism is that it emerged ca 500 BCE as an attempt to add new ideas to a combination of Hinduism + Sun/Light religion. We can find remnants of this new religion in Native American culture, but it is often quite dilute and modified by genuine American ideas. The principal mechanism for such change was the requirement to give up many remnants of Neolithic/Copper Age culture in favor of the Paleolithic/Neolithic culture adopted for American survival. And we surely understand that this older culture was the Earth Mother Culture (EMC) that we have investigated thoroughly.

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Rare Genes from History Revisited

Rare Genes from History Revisited

by, Donald Yates
Check Out DNA Fingerprint Plus $300 

It’s been a year and a half since DNA Consultants introduced Rare Genes from History. We republish here the original press release from October 2012 as a means of familiarizing new and old customers with this unique autosomal marker test, exclusive to our company. Purchase now for only $149 ($134.10 with your customer discount).

For descriptions of all 26 Rare Genes from History, visit the product page.

If you have received your Rare Genes from History results, we encourage you to discuss them with others in the free forums at DNA Communities. How many did you get? Were they European, Native American, African or Asian? Do you think you got a given rare gene from your mother or father? From both?
PRESS RELEASE
Rare Genes from History:  DNA Consultants’ Next-Generation Ancestry Markers

PHOENIX — (Oct. 1, 2012) — DNA typing has gone from successes in the criminal justice system and paternity testing to new heights in mapping genetic diseases and tracing human history. John Butler in the conclusion to his textbook Fundamentals of Forensic DNA Typing raised an important question about these trends. How might genetic genealogy information intersect with forensic DNA testing in the future?

“At DNA Consultants, that new chapter in DNA testing arrived several years ago,” said Donald Yates, chief research officer and founder. “As we approach our tenth anniversary, examining human population diversity continues to be the whole thrust of our research, and it just gets more and more exciting.”

The company’s DNA database atDNA 4.0 captures and puts to use every single published academic study on forensic STR markers, the standard CoDIS markers used in DNA profiles for paternity and personal identification. In 2009, the company introduced the first broad-scale ethnicity markers and created the DNA Fingerprint Plus.

But its innovations didn’t stop there. In October 2012, the company announced the launch of its Rare Genes from History Panel.

Why CoDIS Markers?

“Theoretically,” noted Butler in 2009, “all of the alleles (variations) that exist today for a particular STR locus have resulted from only a few ‘founder’ individuals by slowly changing over tens of thousands of years.”

How true! Hospital studies have determined that the most stable loci (marker addresses on your chromosomes) have values that mutate at a rate of only 0.01%. That means the chance of the value at that location changing from parent to progeny is once every 10,000 generations.

So the autosomal clock of human history ticks at an even slower quantum rate than mitochondrial DNA. Like “mitochondrial Eve,” its patterns were set down in Africa over 100,000 years ago when anatomically modern humans first appeared on the stage of time.

Though the face value of the cards in the deck of human diversity never changed—and all alleles can be traced back to an African origin—as humans left Africa and eventually spread throughout the world, alleles were shuffled and reshuffled. Humanity went through bottlenecks and expansions that emphasized certain alleles over others. Genetic pooling, drift and selection of mates produced regional and country-specific contours much like a geographic map.

“These rare but robust signals of deep history can act as powerful ancestral probes into the tangled past of the human race as well as unique touchstones for the surprising stories of individuals.”

By the twentieth century, when scientists began to assemble the first genetic snapshots of people, it was found that nearly all populations were mixed, some more than others. The geneticist Luigi-Luca Cavalli-Sforza at Stanford University proved that there is almost always more diversity within a population than between populations.

So if there is no such thing as a “pure” population—a control or standard—how are we to make sense of any single individual’s ancestral lines? Statistical analysis provides the answer. And rare genes are easier to trace in the genetic record than common ones. Their distinctive signature stands out.

Back Story:  It All Began with the Melungeons

About the same time as DNA Consultants’ scientists were cracking the mystery of the Melungeons, a tri-racial isolate in the Appalachians, they became aware of certain very rare alleles carried by this unusual population in relatively large doses. The Starnes family, for instance, in Harriman, Tennessee, was observed to have a certain rare score repeated on one location in the profiles of members through three generations. The staff dubbed it “the Starnes gene.”

Soon, company research had characterized 26 rare autosomal ancestry markers—tiny, distinctive threads of inheritance that reflected an origin in Africa and expansion and travels through world history. Genes in this new generation of discoveries were named after some distinctive feature associated with the pattern they created in human genetic history–for instance, the Kilimanjaro Gene after its source in Central East Africa. The Thuya, Akhenaten and King Tut genes were named for the royal family of Egypt whose mummies were investigated by Zahi Hawass’ team in 2010.

The Starnes Gene” became the Helen Gene. Because of its apparent center in Troy in ancient Asia Minor and predilection for settling in island populations, it was named for “the face that launched a thousand ships,” in the famous phrase by Christopher Marlowe.

All 26 of DNA Consultants’ new markers are rare. Not everyone is going to have one. But that’s what makes them interesting, according to Dr. Yates.

Coming from all sections of human diversity—African, Indian, Asian and Native American—they are like tiny gold filaments in a huge, outspread multi-colored tapestry, explains Phyllis Starnes, assistant principal investigator and wife of the namesake of the first discovery. But does that mean that her husband has a connection to Helen of Troy? The markers don’t work on such a literal level, but it does imply that Billy Starnes shares a part of his ancestral heritage with an ancient Greek/Turkish population prominent on the page of history.

Over the past two decades, geneticists have worked out the macro-history and chronology of human migrations in amazing detail and agreement. The Rare Genes from History Panel is another reminder–in the words of an American Indian ceremonial greeting–that “We Are All Related.”

These rare but robust signals of deep history can act as powerful ancestral probes into the tangled past of the human race as well as unique touchstones for the surprising stories of individuals.

For more information about the science of autosomal DNA ancestry testing, visit DNA Consultants or check out its Twitter or Facebook page.

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Distribution map of the Egyptian Gene shows its African origin, partial presence in Coptic populations today (green dots in Egypt) and scattered incidence around the world. 

 

For more information: http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/831180-geneticist-traces-mysterious-origins-of-native-americans-to-middle-east-ancient-greece

http://dnaconsultants.com

http://www.donaldyates.com

 

Received 9-23-14 from Mr. Yates

You may be interested to see that Phase II of the Cherokee DNA Study, which Epoch Times and others reported on in the news story Geneticist Traces Mysterious Origins of Native Americans, is being released, with an announcement and an interesting blog Nobody Can Tell Me Who I Am (more to follow).

Remarkable Monuments of Southern Alberta

by Warren W. Dexter, FES, DFFMES, Elkhart, Indiana

 

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Journal, Volume 17, Number 1, 2003

 

HODO or DOLMEN

Just west of the WRITING ON STONE PROVINCIAL PARK in southern Alberta, Canada is located a wonderfully positioned DOLMEN appearing like a lighthouse that can be observed for miles.  It is high above the Milk River, named in 1805 by the Lewis and Clark expedition as they were passing up the Missouri River where the Milk River enters because of the coloring of the Milk River with sand sediment.

The DOLMEN was originally a HODO made into  DOLMEN by fracturing a hole in the center of the base by humans.  This can be observed from the up-stream side and shows that it is not an opening made from erosion.  At the same time at the level just to the left we see what looks like three pillars.  This is a carved form instead of an inscribed form of the name (B-L) of the ancient god BAAL in the ancient alphabet (vowelless) OGAM.  There are only two places that I have found the name of the God BAAL in this alphabet engraved as on this Pillar (bar relief), the other being on Etruscan burial hut urns in western Italy.

This is one of the two reasons that I assume that this DOLMEN was purposely made as a memorial to the Canaanite God BAAL.  The second reason is on a site about ten miles up stream on the Milk River, 65 ft. high above the river on a bluff stands the so-called OGAM PILLAR with two sculptured heads.

 

OGAM PILLAR

The Ogam Pillar site is located about 15 miles east of the town of Milk River in southern Alberta, Canada.  It is on a bluff 65 feet above the MIlk River which arises on the eastern border of Glacier National Park in the state of Montana and flows north across the Canadian border then parallel to the border and reenters the United States to join the Missouri River in eastern Montana.  It is 625 miles long.

This site has several different stories, and they are in TWO different forms.  One is the ancient OGAM (vowelless) inscribed alphabet that tells the story of the flyway of the birds which is the philosophy of the ancient 6 to 4th century BC priests of the Etruscans of western Italy.  This pillar is located on the flyway of the birds going north to their breeding grounds. “When the birds fly to the west of the pillar the omen is for wars and famines, but when the birds fly east of the pillar the omen is for good weather and huge crops.”

The second is in the form of sculpture.  There are two (2) HEADS sculptured in different forms to portray not only different individuals but their cultures, and by positioning them one above the other showing their position of command.  The head above the OGAM inscription is that of a person who looks like a Roman because of the large nose which the Romans inherited from the Etruscans, their predecessors in Italy.  The second head at the extreme left is that of an African negro-type who quite possibly was the leader of the sailors who brought the expedition to this destination.

Vandals disfigured the head on top of the OGAM PILLAR so that when I photographed it on my return trip in 1998 it was unrecognizable.  It seems that the local establishment and Indians want only their interpretation of history to be considered.  They have even tried to exclude any further photography of sites in this area.

The two people in the photograph are (l-r) Ronald Bair and Lawrence Halmrest, local explorers from southern Alberta.  The latter was my guide to this location.  Sometime previously the Glenbow Museum & Archives in Calgary, Alberta hired three supposed specialists to evaluate the inscriptions along the Milk River which they did and wrote reports about their finds.  It so happened that the two most important sites, the “DOLMEN” and the “OGAM PILLAR” were ignored.

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A Tradition of Giants: More Questions Than Answers

Originally published in Ancient American magazine.

by Ross Hamilton

Long ago in central North America, there was a great civil war. It was a war owning many battles, and had an incredible loss of life. It wasn’t the North versus the South, although it sponsored a confederacy against a union. It probably spanned the geography of a number of present day states—commencing from the area that is the boundary line of the ancient Mississippi. There, the great tribes of the west encountered for the first time the great nation of the east, and the resultant history—or shall we say prehistory, ultimately shaped the pre-Columbian world far more than can ever be understood. Our archaeological record holds relatively limited data of this time period, much less this proposed event, and thus we are dependent to some extent on the invaluable resource of Native American transmission.

Our related science’s present understanding of the pre-Adena (Archaic) inhabitants of the greater Ohio River valley is yet somewhat sketchy, what to say of the Adena themselves. However, many pieces to the puzzle are now thought to be in place. The timeline for the Adena begins around 1000 B.C.E. according to the carbon dating of Dragoo and others. The Archaic populace is not believed to have constructed mounds in the Ohio Valley region, although this is not known for certain due to several factors, including widespread destruction of the earthworks, without content cataloging, over the last 250 years. Most understanding is based upon the dating and trait-grouping of materials found in the diminished number of mounds and village sites yet existing after a formal discipline in archaeology and anthropology finally took over excavation and detailed record keeping.

There are Archaic era mounded structures, often intricate and complex, in the deep southern U.S., including Watson Brake, Poverty Point, Fig Island, and Sapelo. For this reason, theories have been put forth that the moundbuilding tradition came into the Ohio Valley around the time of the Adena from the southern Mississippi, thereby tentatively associating the Adena people with older cultures from the south. In one way of looking at this idea, it supposes that moundbuilding was a phenomenon peculiar to only one geographical source, necessarily having been passed on. Unlike the Adena mounds however, the more ancient southern earthworks did not poignantly suggest a very specialized “cult of the dead.”

By their skeletal remains in the earlier studies, the pre-Adena people were known to have had slender or thin bodies, and been “long-headed,” with “narrow” skulls (dolichocranic), i.e., having a breadth of skull small in proportion to length from front to back. The Adena people weren’t physically akin to these Archaic people. Generally the Adena had more massive bone structure, according to these same studies. The pre-eminent theory of Adena origin at the time was that their ancestry had come from Mexico or even further south. However, the Adena body bone structure type was unusually difficult to trace with surety south of the Rio Grande—where another distinguishing Adena-resonant trait was found practiced from earlier times. That practice was “cradleboard” head deformation.

Head of a statue found near the Ohio River
Outline of the head of a statue of a woman found in the bottom land of the Ohio River near Tolu, KY.

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Holocaust of Giants: The Great Smithsonian Cover-up

 

First published in Ancient American magazine and later in Nexus magazine.

by Ross Hamilton

Noted Native American author and professor of law emeritus, Vine Deloria, writes in a personal communication:

It’s probably better that so few of the ruins and remains were tied in with the Smithsonian because they give good reason to believe the ending of the Indiana Jones movie—a great warehouse where the real secrets of earth history are buried.

Modern day archaeology and anthropology have nearly sealed the door on our imaginations, broadly interpreting the North American past as devoid of anything unusual in the way of great cultures characterized by a people of unusual demeanor. The great interloper of ancient burial grounds, the nineteenth century Smithsonian Institution, created a one-way portal, through which uncounted bones have been spirited. This door and the contents of its vault are virtually sealed off to any but government officials. Among these bones may lay answers not even sought by these officials concerning the deep past.

The first hint we had about the possible existence of an actual race of tall, strong, and intellectually sophisticated people, was in researching old township and county records. Many of these were quoting from old diaries and letters that were combined, for posterity, in the 1800s from diaries going back to the 1700s. Says Vine in this understanding:

Some of these old county and regional history books contain real gems because the people were not subjected to a rigid indoctrination about evolution and were astonished about what they found and honestly reported it.

County Histories
The title pages of the early county and pioneer history books often included phrases like “CAREFULLY WRITTEN AND COMPILED” and “LEST WE FORGET.”

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