Archive for Egypt

East Africans & Ancient Navigation

EAST AFRICANS & ANCIENT NAVIGATION

 

by Harry Bourne

bsooty1@aol.com

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Why It Could Not Be

In a series of papers, this writer has proposed that our ancestors were very much more in touch by sea than is usually accepted by most maritime historians. Doubts about this lead us into something seen in many other of those other papers, namely opening with the negatives and this is echoed in this article with “Why it Could Not Be” are expressed. To also be borne in mind is that dates are to be expressed here as Before Common Era (= BCE/BC) and later ones as Common Era (= CE/AD), as are the international comparisons.

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West Africans & Navigation

WEST AFRICANS & NAVIGATION

by Harry Bourne

bsooty1@aol.com

 

CANOES & NAVIGATION: Oliphantes to Ogowe

 

This is to be seen as a companion piece for “East Africans & Navigation” that in turn is one of a series of papers discussing aspects of whether Africans ever went to sea or were too much in terror of it to do so. Ivan Van Sertima (They Came Before Columbus 1976) wrote against the latter opinion when saying Africans were not the “boatless” people they are frequently described as. As many of the other negatives of voyaging around African shores are listed in “East Africans & Navigation”, there is little point in repeating this here.

Otherwise we begin here with the dugout-canoe. Such canoes were scarce relative to other types over most of east Africa. They originate the Before Common Era (= BCE) were still around in Common Era days to be reported by the unknown author of the Periplus Maris Erythraei (= PME). An addition to this 1st c. CE reference would be those that James Hornell (Mariner’s Mirror 1948) thought were exampled in Egypt by scenes in the tomb of Queen Tiye. Long journeys by canoes are put forward as having taken the Polynesian ancestors of the Maoris to New Zealand. More canoe-borne migrants are those from the part of east Africa that is now called Tanganyika getting to Fiji according to Fijian tradition cited on the Balson Holdings site (online).

There is general opinion groups going under the several labels of Khoikhoi, Khwe, San, Khoisan, Queyna, Bushmen, Capoids plus umpteen others did not use boats. More of the same comes with a contributor to the New Advent Encyclopaedia confidently saying the Khwe did not fish. Contrary views are not helped by the faults of “Bushman’s Art” by Erik Holm (1987) being pointed out by John Parkington in the South African journal called “The Digging Stick” (1988). These faults are such that Holm’s book has been withdrawn by the publisher.

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Kush/Eshi/Obatala – The Inventor of Ogam

 

CATHERINE ACHOLONU, DIRECTOR – CATHERINE ACHOLONU RESEARCH CENTER, ABUJA (www.carcafriculture.org)

SUMMARY:

Osiris was a universal god known all over the world by different names. He was the first Christ long before the days of Jesus and Chrisna. His equivalent entity in India was Rama. He lived in Atlantis as its first priest-king. Filial rivalry caused him to leave Atlantis even before it fell and relocate to West Africa, a nearby land. There he build a city among the native Igbo cave-men and settled among them in anonymity and peace. But it was not to last because soon his fame reached world-wide and trouble came calling. Atlantis fell but Osiris, whom the native Igbo forest people called Eshi (from the root of the word Sirius), recorded the knowledge of Atlantis on stone and hid them (365 of them) in forests of ancient Nigeria. Edgar Cayce’s Readings confirm this. Osiris also left writings on bronze and copper, which were excavated in the 1950s by a young British archaeologist, called Thurstan Shaw. The goods found there would have filled an entire museum, yet it was not even a piece of the ice berg. A monarch’s grave was found who wore a regalia beaded with a whooping 111,000 coloured carnelian (glass) beads, a crescent copper crown with lozenge and zigzag cuttings, a copper breast-plate, beaded armbands, anklets made of rows of copper spirals. This was certainly no ordinary mortal, nor was Igbo Ukwu an ordinary civilization, but one of international ramifications, which must be sought in mythology and world History books. We therefore began the process of analysing the finds and the emblems in order to figure out whether Igbo Ukwu could well be that Pre-historic city which Osiris was reputed to have built in the Forest in the days of the Deluge – It was. Igbo Ukwu was in fact ancient Heliopolis, the capital of mythological Egypt otherwise known as Punt/Panchea.

The term Negro is derived from an ancient word Nagas, designating the most ancient Black race that populated the continents of Africa and, originally, also of Atlantis, who, according to legend, migrated from a sunken continent which in ancient records was known as Mu or Lemuria. Nagas are called the Lords of Fire and their symbol is the serpent or the fire-spitting serpent, otherwise called the dragon. In the ancient Tibetan epic story of the Birth of the Universe – Stanzas of Dzyan the “The Sons of Fire” are called “the Instructors” of the Sons of God and their emblem is “the Dragon of Wisdom”- the Mother whose nature is the spiraling whirlwind – the Swastika. Stanzas 11-12 of this timeless Tibetan epic hidden in the ancient caverns of the Himalayas, translated in part by Helen Blavatsky (The Secret Doctrine), speaks about “the First Great Waters” before the Deluge of Noah:

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Rare Genes from History Revisited

Rare Genes from History Revisited

by, Donald Yates
Check Out DNA Fingerprint Plus $300 

It’s been a year and a half since DNA Consultants introduced Rare Genes from History. We republish here the original press release from October 2012 as a means of familiarizing new and old customers with this unique autosomal marker test, exclusive to our company. Purchase now for only $149 ($134.10 with your customer discount).

For descriptions of all 26 Rare Genes from History, visit the product page.

If you have received your Rare Genes from History results, we encourage you to discuss them with others in the free forums at DNA Communities. How many did you get? Were they European, Native American, African or Asian? Do you think you got a given rare gene from your mother or father? From both?
PRESS RELEASE
Rare Genes from History:  DNA Consultants’ Next-Generation Ancestry Markers

PHOENIX — (Oct. 1, 2012) — DNA typing has gone from successes in the criminal justice system and paternity testing to new heights in mapping genetic diseases and tracing human history. John Butler in the conclusion to his textbook Fundamentals of Forensic DNA Typing raised an important question about these trends. How might genetic genealogy information intersect with forensic DNA testing in the future?

“At DNA Consultants, that new chapter in DNA testing arrived several years ago,” said Donald Yates, chief research officer and founder. “As we approach our tenth anniversary, examining human population diversity continues to be the whole thrust of our research, and it just gets more and more exciting.”

The company’s DNA database atDNA 4.0 captures and puts to use every single published academic study on forensic STR markers, the standard CoDIS markers used in DNA profiles for paternity and personal identification. In 2009, the company introduced the first broad-scale ethnicity markers and created the DNA Fingerprint Plus.

But its innovations didn’t stop there. In October 2012, the company announced the launch of its Rare Genes from History Panel.

Why CoDIS Markers?

“Theoretically,” noted Butler in 2009, “all of the alleles (variations) that exist today for a particular STR locus have resulted from only a few ‘founder’ individuals by slowly changing over tens of thousands of years.”

How true! Hospital studies have determined that the most stable loci (marker addresses on your chromosomes) have values that mutate at a rate of only 0.01%. That means the chance of the value at that location changing from parent to progeny is once every 10,000 generations.

So the autosomal clock of human history ticks at an even slower quantum rate than mitochondrial DNA. Like “mitochondrial Eve,” its patterns were set down in Africa over 100,000 years ago when anatomically modern humans first appeared on the stage of time.

Though the face value of the cards in the deck of human diversity never changed—and all alleles can be traced back to an African origin—as humans left Africa and eventually spread throughout the world, alleles were shuffled and reshuffled. Humanity went through bottlenecks and expansions that emphasized certain alleles over others. Genetic pooling, drift and selection of mates produced regional and country-specific contours much like a geographic map.

“These rare but robust signals of deep history can act as powerful ancestral probes into the tangled past of the human race as well as unique touchstones for the surprising stories of individuals.”

By the twentieth century, when scientists began to assemble the first genetic snapshots of people, it was found that nearly all populations were mixed, some more than others. The geneticist Luigi-Luca Cavalli-Sforza at Stanford University proved that there is almost always more diversity within a population than between populations.

So if there is no such thing as a “pure” population—a control or standard—how are we to make sense of any single individual’s ancestral lines? Statistical analysis provides the answer. And rare genes are easier to trace in the genetic record than common ones. Their distinctive signature stands out.

Back Story:  It All Began with the Melungeons

About the same time as DNA Consultants’ scientists were cracking the mystery of the Melungeons, a tri-racial isolate in the Appalachians, they became aware of certain very rare alleles carried by this unusual population in relatively large doses. The Starnes family, for instance, in Harriman, Tennessee, was observed to have a certain rare score repeated on one location in the profiles of members through three generations. The staff dubbed it “the Starnes gene.”

Soon, company research had characterized 26 rare autosomal ancestry markers—tiny, distinctive threads of inheritance that reflected an origin in Africa and expansion and travels through world history. Genes in this new generation of discoveries were named after some distinctive feature associated with the pattern they created in human genetic history–for instance, the Kilimanjaro Gene after its source in Central East Africa. The Thuya, Akhenaten and King Tut genes were named for the royal family of Egypt whose mummies were investigated by Zahi Hawass’ team in 2010.

The Starnes Gene” became the Helen Gene. Because of its apparent center in Troy in ancient Asia Minor and predilection for settling in island populations, it was named for “the face that launched a thousand ships,” in the famous phrase by Christopher Marlowe.

All 26 of DNA Consultants’ new markers are rare. Not everyone is going to have one. But that’s what makes them interesting, according to Dr. Yates.

Coming from all sections of human diversity—African, Indian, Asian and Native American—they are like tiny gold filaments in a huge, outspread multi-colored tapestry, explains Phyllis Starnes, assistant principal investigator and wife of the namesake of the first discovery. But does that mean that her husband has a connection to Helen of Troy? The markers don’t work on such a literal level, but it does imply that Billy Starnes shares a part of his ancestral heritage with an ancient Greek/Turkish population prominent on the page of history.

Over the past two decades, geneticists have worked out the macro-history and chronology of human migrations in amazing detail and agreement. The Rare Genes from History Panel is another reminder–in the words of an American Indian ceremonial greeting–that “We Are All Related.”

These rare but robust signals of deep history can act as powerful ancestral probes into the tangled past of the human race as well as unique touchstones for the surprising stories of individuals.

For more information about the science of autosomal DNA ancestry testing, visit DNA Consultants or check out its Twitter or Facebook page.

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Distribution map of the Egyptian Gene shows its African origin, partial presence in Coptic populations today (green dots in Egypt) and scattered incidence around the world. 

 

For more information: http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/831180-geneticist-traces-mysterious-origins-of-native-americans-to-middle-east-ancient-greece

http://dnaconsultants.com

http://www.donaldyates.com

 

Received 9-23-14 from Mr. Yates

You may be interested to see that Phase II of the Cherokee DNA Study, which Epoch Times and others reported on in the news story Geneticist Traces Mysterious Origins of Native Americans, is being released, with an announcement and an interesting blog Nobody Can Tell Me Who I Am (more to follow).