Archive for Chinese

East Africans & Ancient Navigation

EAST AFRICANS & ANCIENT NAVIGATION

 

by Harry Bourne

bsooty1@aol.com

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Why It Could Not Be

In a series of papers, this writer has proposed that our ancestors were very much more in touch by sea than is usually accepted by most maritime historians. Doubts about this lead us into something seen in many other of those other papers, namely opening with the negatives and this is echoed in this article with “Why it Could Not Be” are expressed. To also be borne in mind is that dates are to be expressed here as Before Common Era (= BCE/BC) and later ones as Common Era (= CE/AD), as are the international comparisons.

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Recent Scientific Evidence In Light Of Cyrus Gordon’s Theories Of Semitic Inscriptions in America

by Zena Halpern

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal, Volume 16

Three sites will be discussed with ancient Semitic inscriptions; two have astronomical evidence validating their authenticity; the three sites are Hidden Mountain in New Mexico, the Bat Creek Stone from Tennessee, and the Newark, Ohio inscriptions.

Hidden Mountain, New Mexico

The Decalogue Stone

At the base of the mountain is the Decalogue Stone in the old Phoenician/Hebrew/Samaritan script. This huge stone sits in a ravine, at the entrance to a path leading to the top of the mountain. There is a striking similarity to the Samaritan Mezzuzot in which ancient Samaritans placed stone plaques inscribed with an abridged version of the Ten Commandments at the doorways to their dwellings. The Israel Museum has two such stone plaques labeled Samaritan Mezzuzot.

The Astronomical Petroglyph

At the rim of the mountain, is a petroglyph with identifiable constellations; Ursa Minor and Ursa Major, Draco, Virgo, etc. Unique aspects of the petroglyph are a solar eclipse between Virgo and Libra (see sketch) and a circles-dot near the constellation of Draco and Lyra. Dr. Louis Winkler, an astronomer analyzed the petroglyph and stated that the two concentric circles with a dot placed at the north ecliptic pole indicated a knowledge of precession.

Dr. Winkler also analyzed the solar eclipse and stated that the depiction of the solar eclipse from Hidden Mountain, New Mexico took place on Sept. 15, 107 BCE (Gregorian) and was at 5:03 PM Local Standard Time at an elevation of 13 degrees above the horizon. Dr. Winkler’s software (Albug) shows the eclipse in Virgo near Libra. Using the Julian calendar, the eclipse is dated to Sept. 18, 107 BCE which correlates remarkably to the Hebrew calendar date of Elul 28, 3654. Elul 28 is the Hebrew month and day preceding the sacred day of Tishri I and the first day of the seventh month (Leviticus 23:24) later observed as the New Year (Rosh Hashanah). (See table of eclipse dates.)

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The remarkable message depicted on a rock on the rum of Hidden Mountain shows a sophisticated understanding of astronomical data and observation of an event at an auspicious time in the year 107 BCE, which marked the eve of the day of an ancient observance of the Hebrew calendar.

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European Maps, Chinese Sources

By Chao C. Chien

 

Originally published at Diogenes Research

There is no longer doubt that the Age of Discovery was not brought on by European explorers. But then, if they did not “discover” the world, who did? Of course, as many overly eager revisionist theorists allege, the Chinese did, basically on account of the grand maritime naval exercises conducted by the Ming Chinese at the beginning of the 15th century being so close to the start of the European discoveries. Of course, some are driven by reasons that are more personal, such as nationalism. However, is that enough of a justification for revising history? No, that is not. We need something more concrete. I have furnished an argument, based on the analyses of factual evidence, in the book The Chinese Origin of the Age of Discover. Indeed it is now being serialized right here on this website. Nevertheless, it is clear that to some readers that which is being presented in the book may still prove too complex for comprehension. After all, one cannot expect we all be experts in the fields of history, geography, linguistics, philology, and cartography. So, in this article I shall take what is in the book and expand it, in hope that we may all understand the research better.

Let us begin our story two centuries before the real action traditionally began. Hey, if we are to tell a story, why not start from the very beginning, right?

Back in the late 12th century a poor Mongol boy was born in Siberia, but the poor boy was to grow up and become “the” greatest military leader the world had known, greater than Alexander and all the other pretenders.

This boy was name Temujin, better known to us as Genghis Khan. Many scholars had tried their hands at translating this title. Some claimed that it meant a king as great as the ocean, others said it meant ruler over all. In essence, it is basically what Westerners call King of Kings, or so-and-so “The Great.”

Genghis Khan spent his entire adult life leading his mighty Siberian horsemen conquering nations. When he had consolidated the Siberian tribes into an almighty fighting force, his newly created nation came into contact with several neighbors, notably the Jin (forerunners of the Manchu who several hundred years later conquered China) on it south and southeast, and Xi Xia, or Western Xia of a people called Tanguts on it southwest. In 1206 Genghis Khan took out Xi Xia. Then he turned on the Jin, erstwhile overlord of the Mongols. By 1215 Genghis Khan had sacked the Jin capital, present day Beijing, China. Jin then moved its capital to Kaifeng in present day Hunan Province of China, south of the yellow River. Song China by then had shrunk to the south of the Yangtze River. Genghis Khan passed away in 1227, but his son Ogotai Khan finished the job in 1234 and snuffed out the Jin.

Previously the land of the Jin, northern China, belonged to the kingdom of Liao of the Khitan people, who had captured the land from the Song Chinese, forcing the latter to move south and became what historians called the Southern Song. In 1125 Liao was taken over by the Jin. The remnants of the Liao royalty fled west and established the kingdom of Kara-Khitai in present day Chinese Turkestan, Xinjiang Province and Central Asia. Kara means west, thus in Chinese the kingdom is known as Western Liao. The name Khitan was pronounced in the west as Khitai, which in time evolved into Cathay. The people of the west identified them with the Chinese, thus the names Khitai (Russian Kitai) and Cathay became the names of China.

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Olmec Beards

by Cyclone Covey, DFMES, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, N.C.

 

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Journal, Volume 20, 2006.

 

Comments on: Lawrence F. Athy, “Foreign Influences on the Priesthood & Nobility of Precolumbian America,” ESOP XVII (1983), 106-120 & “Beards in North America Before Columbus,” XIX (1990), 169-175.

 

THESE SEMINAL ARTICLES did not receive proper deliberation during the lifetime of Larry Athy, a deeply thoughtful genleman best known as one of the world’s 3 leading authorities on Comalcalco (with Neil Steede & Frank Reynolds) who declared Comalcalco not the most spectacular bust most important precolumbian site.  Whether so, its inscribed bricks in many languages besides Mayan confirmed foreign influences.  He notably demonstrated (at the 1988 ISAC Conference) a startling parallel of Aegean and precolumbian Mexican art, apparently confirming Olmec beards transatlantic.  As a native of Ponca City, Okla. he knew Indians had virtually no facial hair, so conjectured goateed Olmec aristocrats including shamans Europoid.

Though the Mexican government decreed all precolumbian Mexican art & artifacts indigenous, Athy knew that evolution did not start at a height, conjecturing already-full-blown Olmec could have resulted from 100 men in 4 ships but probably many more men and ships visiting Veracruz and departing without establishing colonies or trade-after native women favored them, thus Caucasoid and Negroid descendants.  Native Indian women, we know from Spanish colonial experience, preferred Black husbands because they treated women better. Athy neglected to note that the famous gigantic Negro Olmec heads beardless, thus Blacks unlikely co-responsible for Olmec beards.

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Expressly discounting an Asian source, extrapolating from Indians of his acquaintance, he seemed unaware that while Chinese were not typically bearded, there were bearded Chinese immemorially, especially savants, shamans, and emperors.  Neither did beards typify Mongols.  Yet Mongol emperors also had beards, including Yuan & Ming dynasties.  Genghis Khan was described bearded.  Olmec sculptures indicate beards, however, as uncommon in Mexico as in China and Mongolia.  The Shang empire stretched a thousand miles all the way to Gansu encompassing half-Caucasoid Turks and Caucasoid Tocharians (Scythian/Sogdian Indo-Iranian & Italo-Celtic Yuchis), whereas Asians migrating to America in remote antiquity who sired the uniform population of medieval and modern Mexico evidently hailed from coastal South China.

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Early New World Maps

 Early New World Maps

by

Dr. Gunnar Thompson

 

Early Maps of the New World

The persistent academic argument concerning early voyages to the New World ends with an examination of the cartographic evidence. Maps that have been preserved in the collections of such distinguished archives as the Louvre (in Paris), the British Museum, and the Library of Congress are sufficient to prove that ancient seafarers as far back as the Roman Empire engaged in regular voyages to Ancient America.

The beauty of the ancient maps is that they contain precise details called “Diagnostic Geographical Markers.” These “markers” serve the same function as fingerprints found at a crime scene. These cartographical fingerprints contain unmistakable coastlines, geographical positions on the globe, references of longitude and latitude, proximities to identifiable mainland or islands, place names of cities or territorial titles (also called toponyms), and often text that identifies key features of topography, climate, vegetation, or native species of animals. Historical perspectives provided by the sequence of maps from a particular region are often sufficient to delineate sequential modifications of coastlines as subsequent explorers gradually improved the cartographical knowledge of a particular area.

The importance of examining the cartographical evidence is the realization that all the world’s maritime adventurers and merchants were actively engaged in exploring the world and taking advantage of valuable commodities from the earliest times that ships were capable of ocean sailing. Archaic academic notions that the New World was somehow isolated from Old World contact until after Columbus sailed across the Atlantic in an effort to reach China in the 15th century are based on a Eurocentric religious doctrine that was inherited from the Middle Ages. Most historians got their training at Medieval Church universities; and it was the belief of learned elders in these institutions that the sole purpose for having a Chronicle of the Ages (that is, “history”) was to document the spread of the “One True Religion” around the globe. Modern scholars would do well to abandon this myopic mental baggage, because the survival and prosperity of our species depends upon making an accurate appraisal of where we have come from in the past and where we need to be heading in the future. All the world’s peoples (and all religions) played a role in the past; and together we must build the pathway into the future. Read more