Archive for April 25, 2015

Bird Ogam In Ancient America

By, John J White, III and Beverley H Moseley, Jr.

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal

 

Our interests include many aspects of ancient culture and cultural diffusion. We are inclined to report on specific artifacts found in books and museums that are relevant to our investigations. Waiting for some organized package of data to arise is quite impractical. While surveying books of interest at the State Library of Ohio in Columbus, we identified two cases of bird petroglyphs that may be rebuses for Ogam inscriptions. Examples of each are shown in Figures 1 and 2, respectively, and we make no claim that these artifacts have not been republished by others with the same idea in mind. We have not seen Burrows Cave artifacts with this particular rock art style, although birds and snakes are plentiful. Figures 3 and 4 show two side views of a Bird Mother statue with multilingual inscriptions including some Ogam lettering. Figures 2-4 are line drawings by BH Moseley.

Figure 1 is a wonderful bird artifact having uneven stroke feathers that are comparable with many examples of Ogam writing translated by the late Professor Barry Fell. The suggested lower Mississippi location is exellent for an interpretation of writing by visitors with Keltic and Carthaginian heritage during the Roman era. Dr Peet called this figure a Thunder Bird, but we prefer to recognize the Earth Mother as a bird symbol accompanied by her Earth Father consort symbolized by the serpent.

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Figure 1. This is an alleged Thunder Bird rock drawing, probably from the lower Mississippi River basin (from SD Peet, The Mound Builders. 1903.). Notice the snake figure and the Ogam strokes.

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Bourne Stone Gives Evidence Of Early Atlantic Crossing

by, John J White, III, Beverley H. Moseley, Jr., and Charles F. Herberger

Originally published in The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Journal

 

[Editor’s Note: The visit of Dr. Charles Herberger to the 2001 MES Symposium prompted us to prepare an update of an old epigraphic diffusion report. It is amazing that this brief message has an aura of legitimacy, whereas many large sites with 100+ letters are denounced as frauds by alleged experts.]

Like it or not, the colonial settlers of America were confronted with traces of cultural diffusion from the very beginning. The topics included Black Indians, Moslem crescent ornaments, Welsh-speaking Indians, Melungeons (Moroscos from Spain), Indians with caucasian appearances, religious elements similar to Christianity, legends that sounded like they had influences from prior Atlantic explorers, and numerous Native American words that appeared to be borrowings from Europe and Africa. Later scattered artifacts and inscriptions were found, and the steady influx of peoples from historical Asia was detected. Few people will calm that any small number of these observations is conclusive, but the large quantity of such suggestive findings leaves little doubt that our ancestors have been traveling about the world from long before the detectable history of mankind right down to present times.

One of the first inscriptions noted and interpreted was the so-called Bourne Stone of western Cape Cod, whose lettering suggests that Carthaginian-type people writing with the Ibero-Punic script may have reached the New England coast as early as 475 BCE. This Whittall-Fell collaboration was well accepted and occurred during the Golden Age of Barry Fell research. Later, people with inferior translation abilities began to realize the limitations of real-world epigraphy and voiced the obvious conclusion that many interpretations of ancient writing were dubious and certain circumstances possibly manipulated. The inscriptions are nevertheless significant artifacts!

The Cape Cod boundary with greater Massachusetts was defined roughly by Great Herring Pond and the connecting river called the Manumet that flows southward into the north end of Buzzards Bay. The Cape Cod Canal is the practical boundary today. The inscription find area is on the east (Cape Cod) side of the river, although there is speculation that it could have been transported from a site on Great Herring Pond. The local name has changed from Komassakumkanit to Bournedale to Bourne. There is good reason to think the so-called Bourne Stone was recognized as a curious inscription during the 1658-1676 CE era when it was used as a church doorstep. There is confidence that fraudmakers were far less prevalent during this era.

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European Maps, Chinese Sources

By Chao C. Chien

 

Originally published at Diogenes Research

There is no longer doubt that the Age of Discovery was not brought on by European explorers. But then, if they did not “discover” the world, who did? Of course, as many overly eager revisionist theorists allege, the Chinese did, basically on account of the grand maritime naval exercises conducted by the Ming Chinese at the beginning of the 15th century being so close to the start of the European discoveries. Of course, some are driven by reasons that are more personal, such as nationalism. However, is that enough of a justification for revising history? No, that is not. We need something more concrete. I have furnished an argument, based on the analyses of factual evidence, in the book The Chinese Origin of the Age of Discover. Indeed it is now being serialized right here on this website. Nevertheless, it is clear that to some readers that which is being presented in the book may still prove too complex for comprehension. After all, one cannot expect we all be experts in the fields of history, geography, linguistics, philology, and cartography. So, in this article I shall take what is in the book and expand it, in hope that we may all understand the research better.

Let us begin our story two centuries before the real action traditionally began. Hey, if we are to tell a story, why not start from the very beginning, right?

Back in the late 12th century a poor Mongol boy was born in Siberia, but the poor boy was to grow up and become “the” greatest military leader the world had known, greater than Alexander and all the other pretenders.

This boy was name Temujin, better known to us as Genghis Khan. Many scholars had tried their hands at translating this title. Some claimed that it meant a king as great as the ocean, others said it meant ruler over all. In essence, it is basically what Westerners call King of Kings, or so-and-so “The Great.”

Genghis Khan spent his entire adult life leading his mighty Siberian horsemen conquering nations. When he had consolidated the Siberian tribes into an almighty fighting force, his newly created nation came into contact with several neighbors, notably the Jin (forerunners of the Manchu who several hundred years later conquered China) on it south and southeast, and Xi Xia, or Western Xia of a people called Tanguts on it southwest. In 1206 Genghis Khan took out Xi Xia. Then he turned on the Jin, erstwhile overlord of the Mongols. By 1215 Genghis Khan had sacked the Jin capital, present day Beijing, China. Jin then moved its capital to Kaifeng in present day Hunan Province of China, south of the yellow River. Song China by then had shrunk to the south of the Yangtze River. Genghis Khan passed away in 1227, but his son Ogotai Khan finished the job in 1234 and snuffed out the Jin.

Previously the land of the Jin, northern China, belonged to the kingdom of Liao of the Khitan people, who had captured the land from the Song Chinese, forcing the latter to move south and became what historians called the Southern Song. In 1125 Liao was taken over by the Jin. The remnants of the Liao royalty fled west and established the kingdom of Kara-Khitai in present day Chinese Turkestan, Xinjiang Province and Central Asia. Kara means west, thus in Chinese the kingdom is known as Western Liao. The name Khitan was pronounced in the west as Khitai, which in time evolved into Cathay. The people of the west identified them with the Chinese, thus the names Khitai (Russian Kitai) and Cathay became the names of China.

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